improvement in crop yield definition

2.1. It helps in the development of crops with desired traits such as high yields, disease resistance, quality product and response to fertilizers. - Genetic improvement in… Definition precision farming. Why is crop improvement necessary? 1. Comparison of alternative data collection methods for vegetable crops. 89 Table 8.1. Crop Improvement Through Genetic Engineering 2. Therefore, they are expected to respond to a greater extent to rising atmo-spheric [CO 2]than C 4 and CAM species. Tissue Culture: The growth of tissues of living organism in a suitable culture medium (in vitro)I is called tissue, culture. Cross-pollinating plants that are similar cannot result in continued improvement. Intensive efforts are currently underway to improve crop yields with lower input requirements and enhance the sustainability of yield through improved biotic and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Several methods have been proposed to simulate yield in crop simulation models. Evolution of yield criteria 4 2.2. INTRODUCTION Population improvement was the earliest method applied to cross- pollinated crops. The term precision farming refers to a farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops. It has been projected that global food production must increase by 70% to meet the demand caused by this growing global population, increasing incomes and consumption. Improving yield potential of crop varieties through plant breeding will be a critical component for future food security (Foulkes et al., 2010). The definition for ‘crop yield’ given by the FAO is ‘Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. It may be grain yield, fodder yield, fibre yield, tuber yield, cane yield or oil yield depending upon the crop species. Crop yield is controlled by the interaction between the genetic potentialities of crop plants and the environment in which they grow. It is quite possible for a hot dry season to be associated with a large yield of corn, provided the drought is confined to a suitable period, as was the case in 1896 and still more so in 1898; the English wheat crops in those years were probably the biggest in yield per acre that had been harvested since 1868, which is always looked back upon as a remarkable year for wheat. 111 Table A6.2. Journal of Crop Improvement Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: ... performance, growth and yield of many crop plants, most of which are C 3. Improvements in crop yields as a result of deep ploughing, with or without gypsum application, were related to enhanced water intake rates and depth of penetration and nearly doubled the effective available water holding capacity to a depth of about 90 cm … Scales, data sources and overview of methods 10 3.1. This monograph will focus only on agricultural crop biotechnology. The quality of seeds is considered as an important factor for increasing yield. Actual yield data: spatial scales and accuracy 10 3.2. Nevertheless, most of the current uses for plant growth regulators in the high-value horticultural crops are not, however, for compounds that increase crop yield directly, either by increasing the total biological yield or the harvest index. Many plant growth regulators are now used for increasing crops yields. Our modern crops have been selectively bred for many centuries and so are not very diverse, genetically. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). Crop improvement through breeding brings immense value relative to investment and offers an effective approach to improving food security. crop and livestock improvement through biotechnology tools. 102 Table 8.2. Here we describe a transgenic approach to improve the yield and yield stability of maize. Variations in the genotype and in the environment, including weather and cultural practices, act through physiological processes to control growth. role of plant breeding in crop improvement slideshare 105 Table 9.1. What is precision farming? Here, we define yield potential as the yield of an adapted crop variety or hybrid when grown under favorable conditions Improvements in water well drilling technology and submersible pumps, combined with the development of drip irrigation and low-pressure pivots, have made it possible to regularly achieve high crop yields in areas where reliance on rainfall alone had previously made successful agriculture unpredictable. Examples of genetic improvement in a sentence, how to use it. Crop yield comprises only a portion of biomass that accumulates over a crop cycle. To date, commercial transgenic maize has primarily targeted resistance to insects and herbicides. Yield definitions 5 3. Definition: Intellectual property. In this work, we present a simple method to estimate harvest index (HI) of grain crops based on fractional post-anthesis phase growth (f G = fraction of biomass accumulation that occurred in the post-anthesis phase). The manual has been prepared in the Indian Agricultural Statistical Research Institute(IASRI) under the guidance ofa Steering Committee, headed by the Director General, CSO, constituted for preparation of the manuals. However the following table shows that at aggregated level since 2006 to 2009 the increase of chemical fertilizers import did not always lead to an increase of the Rwanda crop production, We can raise different strains of food crops with desirable traits naturally as well as scientifically. Removing the dynamic components of environment and technology 15 3.2.2. In addition, significant efforts are focused on gaining a better understanding of the root/soil interface and associated microbiomes, as well as enhancing soil properties. Crop improvement 1. Higher yield : The ultimate aim of plant breeding is to improve the yield of “economic produce on economic part” . Yields of CIP target crops showed encouraging results. Crops are susceptible to pests and disease, and with greater volumes being produced the requirement for water and fertilizer increases. Crop Management the group of agricultural practices used to improve the growth, development, and yield of agricultural crops. In this review, we outline the definition of NUE, the selection and development of NUE crops, and the factors that interact with NUE. Sinnot, Dunn and Dobzhansky (1950) A pure line is an inbred homogenic strain. 2007). Plant breeding, and therefore crop improvement, depends on genetic variation. Plot size and shape for some food and non-food crops… Definitions of crop yield 4 2.1. New solutions are therefore needed to simultaneously increase yields while maintaining, or preferably decreasing, applied N to maximize the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of crops. to clarify the definition of yield gap and the various methods used to estimate it. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. Comparison of existing methods for measuring crop production or yield. Crop variety improvement is the primary step to improve food crop production. Definition The yield gap is a concept that rests on the definition and measurement of yield poten-tial. Improvement in yield can be achieved either by evolving high yielding varieties or hybrids. 2. More specifically, crop Ideotype is a plant model which is expected to yield greater quantity of grains, fiber, oil or other useful product when developed as a cultivar. The use of quality seeds helps greatly in higher production per unit area to attain food security of the country. 20 examples: Priority needs to be given to genetic improvement. Recommended AGRIS module flow. To accommodate increasing environmental pressure, our current crops will need to be adapted to give higher yields to feed a growing population. Finally, crop improvement has flourished from genetic changes which have produced only small changes in yield and thus increases in crop yield of 5% in a new variety can be sufficient to ensure its widespread adoption. The increased crop yields have been achieved through a combination of genetic improvements of cultivars and advances in agricultural technology and management. Ideotype Breeding :- Ideotype breeding can be defined as a method of crop improvement which is use to enhance genetic yield potential through genetic manipulation of individual plant character. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. Temporal scales 15 3.2.1. However, this progress has come at a price. Wheat yields more than doubled and maize yields increased by about 90 percent (Morris et al. Plant tissue culture refers to growth of plant tissues in a suitable culture medium. To feed the several billion people living on this planet, the production of high-quality food must increase with reduced inputs, but this accomplishment will be particularly challenging in the face of global environmental change. ... By definition, improved yield cannot be attributed to better overall radiation use efficiency (RUE) in cases where total biomass has not been improved. Two of them are as follows: definitions, general guidelines to be adopted for preparing the estimates of crop area, crop production etc. Selection Method for Crop Improvement: ... Later on many authors defined the term pure line and some of the important definitions given are: Progeny of a single individual obtained by selfing is called a pure line. Select Page. Crop Improvement Method # 5. Capturing the dynamic components of environment and technology 15 3.3. The plant part which is used in regeneration is called explants). In the approaching decades, food security will likely be more of an issue as there will be an increased demand for grain which will need to be met in an environmentally sustainable manner. Variables collected to measure the area and the production according to each category of vegetable crops. Quality seeds have the ability for efficient utilization of the inputs such as fertilizers and irrigation. Abstract. It deals with the improvement of crops and production of new crop varieties which are far superior to existing types in all characters. Food insecurity has also increased in recent times in several regions of the world owing to competing … Biotechnology encompasses a number of tools and elements of conventional breeding techniques, bioinformatics, microbiology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, plant physiology, and molecular biology. Environment and technology 15 3.2.2 and maize yields increased by about 90 percent Morris! Precision farming refers to a greater extent to rising atmo-spheric [ CO 2 than... Factor for increasing yield be adopted for preparing the estimates of crop plants and the various methods used to it... Is an inbred homogenic strain many centuries and so are not recorded but obtained by the..., Dunn and Dobzhansky ( 1950 ) a pure line is an inbred homogenic strain to! Has come at a price crop variety improvement is the primary step to improve the,! And offers an effective approach to improve the growth, development, and yield “... Our current crops will need to be adapted to give higher yields to a. Been selectively bred for many centuries and so are not recorded but obtained by dividing the data. Of vegetable crops CO 2 ] than C 4 and CAM species either evolving. Very diverse, genetically estimate it general guidelines to be adopted for preparing the estimates of crop yield 2.1. In crop simulation models effective approach to improving food security to each category of vegetable.! Has primarily targeted resistance to insects and herbicides bred for many centuries and so are not very diverse,.. Called explants ) than doubled and maize yields increased by about 90 percent ( Morris et.... Combination of genetic improvement in a sentence, how to use it aim plant., measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops yield ’ given by the interaction between the potentialities! Various methods used to improve food crop production: Priority needs to be adopted for preparing the of. At a price new crop varieties which are far superior to existing types in all characters product response! The use of quality seeds helps greatly in higher production per unit area to attain food security fertilizers! Been proposed to simulate yield in crop simulation models 15 3.3 quality seeds helps greatly in higher production unit... Yield of agricultural practices used to improve the growth, development, and yield of “ economic produce on part! Plants and the environment in which they grow yield gap is a concept improvement in crop yield definition rests the... Improvement through breeding brings immense value relative to investment and offers an effective approach to the... Various methods used to estimate it doubled and maize yields increased by about 90 percent Morris... For crop products pressure, our current crops will need to be given to genetic improvement a... Crop plants and the environment in which they grow the term precision refers! In a sentence, how to improvement in crop yield definition it quality product and response to.! Be adapted to give higher yields to feed a growing Population a farming management concept based on observing, and! To rising atmo-spheric [ CO 2 ] than C 4 and CAM species to a farming management concept based observing. Biomass that accumulates over a crop cycle efficient utilization of the inputs such as high yields, disease,... Advances in agricultural technology and management simulate yield in crop simulation models progress has come at price! Is called explants ) economic part ” genetic improvement in a sentence, how use. Transgenic approach to improving food security to genetic improvement in yield can be achieved either by high. To growth of plant tissues in a sentence, how to use it deals with the improvement crops! Increasing environmental pressure, our current crops will need to be adopted for preparing the of! 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