aphis craccivora management

35, 75–7. Plant Dis. e ective plant extract-based insecticide to be utilized in integrated pest management (IPM) programs against A. craccivora. Mweke A(1)(2), Ulrichs C(2), Nana P(1)(3), Akutse KS(1), Fiaboe KKM(1), Maniania NK(1), Ekesi S(1). (1980) A population explosion of Aphis craccivora following DDT application in a cowpea plot, Vigna unguiculata (cultvar prima) in Nigeria. Nwokolo, E. and Ilechukwu, S.N. Perrin, R.M. Appl. Chambers, A.F.G. (1984) Biology of Aphis craccivora Koch and varietal resistance of cowpeas, University of Reading, UK PhD Thesis, 273 pp. Scientific Name: Aphis craccivora (Reviewed 1/17, updated 1/17, corrected 12/20) In this Guideline: Description of the pest; Damage; Management; Publication ; Glossary; DESCRIPTION OF THE PEST (View photos to identify aphids) Cowpea aphid is readily distinguishable from other aphids inhabiting alfalfa because it is the only black aphid found infesting the crop. A'Brook, J. Smart (eds) Food and Feed from Legumes and Oilseeds pp. Aphis craccivoratypically feeds on several species of legumes (family Fabaceae) worldwide, including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins, and peanuts. Wiley Online Library © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. and Benton, A.W. Manawadu, D. (1985) Varietal susceptibility of cowpea to Aphis craccivora. Appl. Research Article. Entomol. Taylor, T.A. Pest Manage. J Econ Entomol. Prevention . Appl. Australian J. Zool. IITA Research Mohan Raj and A.W. Some aphid species were shown to be poor or non-vectors of WMV and ZYMV what suggests some level of specificity in the virus-vector interaction. Nim Azal-F as an inhibitor of growth and reproduction in the toul kaupea thas craccivora Koh. Bean aphid: Aphis craccivora (Aphididae: Hemiptera) Distribution and status Cosmopolitan, India, Africa, Argentina, China, U.S.A., Europe, Australia Host range Groundnut, red gram, peas, beans, safflower, lablab, niger Damage symptoms Both nymphs and adults cause the damage by sucking the plant sap. 30, 155–74. (1985) Cowpea as a mixed crop. ACS Symposium Series No. Fitopat. Singh and K.O. 20 per page; 50 per page; 100 per page; Search Results. Fauquet, C. and Beachy, R.N. Ofuya, T.I. Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) is a small aphid. Bohlen, E. (1978) Crop Pests in Tanzania and their Control. and Singh, S.R. Atiri, G.I., Ekpo, E.J.A. Aphis craccivora is one of the serious pest of Phaseolus sinensis and Lablab purpureus. - 107.180.78.4. Bhat, N. and Singh, R. (1991) Bionomics of an Aphidiid parasitoid Trioxys indicus 36. Altieri, M.A., Francis, C.A., van Schoonhoven, A. and Doll, J.D. Gujarat Agric. Direct Control. Dent, D. (1991) Insect Pest Management. (1988) Screening techniques for host plant resistance to cowpea insect pests. and Root, R.B. Aphids on Green Gram Aphis craccivora. Rachie (eds) Cowpea Research, Production and Utilization pp. Remison, S.U. 54, 199–208. Mechanism of influence. Agric. Appl. Philip. Aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch) are an important vegetative stage pest of cowpea in Africa. Combinations of selective insecticides, natural enemies, cultural methods and resistant varieties are usually used. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48: 1523-1530. Sci., Camb. Aphis craccivora life cycle pdf Taxonomic accommodation: Insecta, Gemimetabola, Gemipter, Sternorrinch, Afidoid, Afididae. Cowpea aphid feeding damage includes sucking and removing plant sap that reduces the amount of nutrients and water available to the crop and causes transmission of plant viruses. (1984) Preliminary studies of cowpea resistance to Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae). (1992) Virus-engineered resistance: concepts, efficacy, and stability. Indian J. Entomol. Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a sap sucking insect and one of the major pests on economically important crops in India. 42, 279–84. Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy. Aphis craccivora. 213 pp. Singh and K.O. N.1. 273–86. Ofuya, T.I. Author information: (1)Plant Health Division, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), Nairobi, Kenya. and Roberts, J.E. (1965) Effect of NP and K on the fecundity of the groundnut aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. Consequences to pest resistance management. A'Brook, J. Chambers, A.F.G. Ann. Further several studies have been made on its biology and predatory efficiency [5-7]. We are working closely with the Department of Homeland Security’s Customs and Border Protection, other federal agencies, and State departments of agriculture to investigate the situation. xڭZY�۶~��У��`�$�x�ة�u�I{z����^,\4��s�3A����AW�]���^�%T0�(�*I8��,�Ԫ��g^��'��[�QB�b��HD��|��"��0i�Wa��x��d���'���ÏК0���`�$恕���X�X��f��oo��n�P,�W0�H��ٮ>���.O���盿>{�)P����6L�n���v���Ն+�~k*��ʬ��s}(�)%�9ԯy���6&M��uc9`B�01�p�j#"N�ԫ ���t/����qdj�j��q�6��0t��s����>�n_�*O-u��*G�U_�r7���Y㚯��D���m��uՎ[E�!& D�I���Q����>�4~LT��H�X�+A"�EϮ6Q�~j�r��|[,-2��I����e��o�}Vk׼��w�"'�-��XYX8=�ٺ�a�k^�6�����`�`��}h�O�g�G�u�@{3!n�g�7�D�|`a*���M�vy��OE���vI� �*��DB|I�8:U�5~��� �j���ۗ��֟�?�����5�@�[���GR��$�p��{|T�yڛ �%�A�4X�*�o���e��Yyk�����Eaq۞ Common name: Cowpea aphid. 243–322. Exp. and Adalia, C.B. 13, 35965 Maxwell, F. G. (1991) Use of insect resistant plants in integrated pest management programmes. Accepted Articles. Trop. Chemical, cultural, physical and biological methods, and use of plant resistance for A. craccivora control in cowpea are reviewed. Finally, prospects for integrated pest management are discussed. Sci. Differences in the high-temperature tolerance of Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on cotton and soybean: implications for ecological niche switching among hosts. Booker, R.H. (1963) The effect of sowing date and spacing on rosette disease of groundnut in northern Nigeria, with observations on the vector. Grain Legume Bull. Jackai, L.E.N. Ofuya, T.I. 14, 617–19. Keywords: biopesticide; biological control; botanical insecticides; lacewing; integrated pest management 1. Department of Crop Production, The Federal Univeristy of Technology, PMB 704, Akure, Nigeria, You can also search for this author in (1976b) Effects of groundnut sowing date and plant spacing on rosette virus disease in Malawi. (1985) Insects damaging cowpeas in Asia. 28, 373–80. Ng, N.Q. Singh, S.R. Prot. Evaluation of the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Isaria sp. Aphis craccivora Koch. Chalfant, R.B. management in Australia grains and pastures: a review. and Way, M.J. (1970) Ecological background to pest management. The fix essential oils or even the aromatic and medicinal plants extract with antibiotic properties, lead 52, 3–11. Hamid, S., Shah, M.A. Nigerian J. Agron. The aphids Aphis craccivora Koch attack country bean Lablab purpureus L. both in its vegetative and reproductive stages and cause severe damage. Trop. Share . (1990) Insect pests of cowpea. Several sources of resistance to cowpea aphid have been identified and efforts are underway to develop aphid‐resistant cultivars of cowpea. Host plants: Polyphagous, with a preference for legumes.. Economic importance: The feeding of this aphid on clover and alfalfa causes plant wilting as well as blackening, … (1988b) Resistance of some cowpea varieties to the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) under ®eld and screenhouse conditions in Nigeria. Bull. Ibadan: IITA. Applic. Agro-Ecosystems Entomol. Entomol. Economic importance: Feeding this aphid clover and alfalfa leads to withering plants as well as blackening, due … (1991) Why ladybirds have generally been ineffective in biological control. Rev. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48: 1523-1530. 58, 1080–4. 149–57. Ecosyst. 20, 10–11. Ann. CGBD (Offline Database on Chhattisgarh Biodiversity) J. Sci. 31, 331–5. Farrell, J.A.K. Aphis craccivora (Koch) management which will assessing the pesticide productivity and timing of pesticide application. Akingbohungbe, A.E. In J.S. (1985) Structure of aphid populations. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University. @inproceedings{Navas2014BasisFA, title={Basis for agroecological management of aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Cuban agroecosystems}, author={M. Navas}, year={2014} } M. Navas Published 2014 Biology In this report, aphid population was … Appl. Singh and K.O. Appl. 195–215. for the Management of Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididdae). 61, 289–94. London: Chapman & Hall. Due to heavy infestation, young seedlings succumb to death, whereas the older … Singh (ed) Insect Pests of Tropical Food Legumes pp. Ofuya, T.I. Ann. A. craccivora is a common aphid species with agricultural importance in the United States. (1995b) Colonization and control of Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) by coccinellid predators in some resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties in Nigeria. Grain Legume Bull. Appl. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 604 pp. 52, 35–8. Botanical insecticides that degrade rapidly are safer than persistent synthetic chemical insecticides, less harmful to the environment, decrease production costs and are not likely to cause insecticide resistance among pests. Hill, D.S. J. In S.R. 123, 19–23. (1994) The Insects: An Outline of Entomology. Trop. Insect Sci. Ofuya, T.I. Aphis craccivora, Aphis gossypii, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae are efficient WMV and ZYMV vectors. (1988) The legume pod-borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer): past, present and future research. 19, 3–4. Wightman, J.A., Dick, K.M., Ranga Rao, G.V., Shanower, T.G. Immatures are slightly dusted with wax, adults without wax. Dixon, A.F.G. (1996) Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (1984) The effect of temperature and host species on the population growth potential of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae). 81, 123–6. (1972) The influence of vegetational diversity on the population ecology of a specialized herbivore, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Berlin/Hambrug: Verlag Paul Parey, 142 pp. A Regional Perspective of the Phenology and Migration of the Cowpea Aphid. Observations on Aphis craccivora Koch at Serere, Uganda, in 1964–68 showed that dry season carry-over of aphids could occur on the common weeds Euphorbia hirta and E. prostrata; at other times aphids were seen on Gliricidia sepium, Cassia tora, Centrosema pubescens and Macroptilium atropurpureum, the last two being increasingly used as pasture legumes. Effect of warming with temperature oscillations on a low-latitude aphid, Aphis craccivora - Volume 103 Issue 4 - Chia-Yu Chen, Ming-Chih Chiu, Mei-Hwa Kuo Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Development of Entomopathogenic Fungi as Biopesticides for the Management of Cowpea Aphid, Aphis Craccivora Koch (Band 46): Mweke, Allan Ndua: Amazon.sg: Books 105, 45–9. 5, 406–10. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018461320137, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018461320137, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in 11, 108–12. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. In S.R. (1990) Observation on the biology of Cheilomenes vicina (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Nigeria. Development of entomopathogenic fungi as biopesticides for the management of Cowpea Aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, eBook pdf (pdf eBook) bei hugendubel.de als Download für Tolino, eBook-Reader, PC, Tablet und Smartphone. (1994) Insecticidal effect of some plant extracts on the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae). 265–71. and Barrion, A.A. (1987) Biotypes of insect pests of agricultural crops. (1972) Studies on parthenogenetic viviparous and sexual forms of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. Technol. A structure–activity study of the mode of [3H]imidacloprid displacement in Myzus persicae and Aphis craccivora, Pest Management Science, 10.1002/ps.919, 60, 10, (945-958), (2004). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 666 pp. Arnason, J.T., Philogene, B.J.R. III. 229–242. Pedigo, L.P. (1991) Entomology and Pest Management. Applied Entomology and Zoology, Vol. 1. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Exp. Entomol. Aphis craccivora control by ocimum gratissimum oil Journal of Agroindustry Sistems ISSN: 2674-7464 GVAA (2020) V.3. (Aphis craccivora). compared with those fed natural prey (Aphis craccivora), likely due to different nutritional characteristics of the diet. Pandey, R.K. and Westphal, E. (1989) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. In S.R. Nigerian J. Sci. In S.R. Aphids can infest cowpea through direct feeding on leaves, pods and other aerial tissues of the plant, or indirectly through the transmission of … Bull. 3, 287–96. Environ. Environ. Insect Sci. (1985) Interaction between fungicides, insecticides and spraying regimes in the control of fungal diseases, insect pests and yield of cowpea. and Leleji, O.I. Colonization and control of Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) ... Environ. Demetri, N.H. and Elhavari, F.M.A. and Akingbohungbe, A.E. Grain Legume Bull. Ferro, D.N. Chemical, cultural, physical and biological methods, and use of plant resistance for A. craccivora control in cowpea are reviewed. Uvah, I.I. 3, 19–25. Singh and K.O. 52, … and Jackai, L.E.N. (1987) Insect pest outbreaks in agroecosystems. Saxena, R.C. 75–80. Remison, S.U. Gullan, P.J. 7, 5–11. Univ. Common name: Copeea aphid. Ann. Kranz, J., Schmutterer, H. and Koch, W. (eds) (1977) Diseases, Pests and Weeds in Tropical Crops. Ann. v.d.Maesen and Sadikin Someatmadja (eds) PROSEA No 1, Pulses pp. Cobbinah, J.R. and Osei-Owusu, K. (1988) Effects of neem seed extracts on insect pests of eggplant, okra and cowpea. Part of Springer Nature. 115, 563–6. (1978) Plant Breeding for Pest and Disease Resistance. and Barmore, J.L. Ofuya, T.I. Takeda et al (1980) demonstrated that the frequency of honeydew excretion was higher, and the interval between honeydew droppings shorter, in ant attended aphids than in ant free ones. Of intercropping with cereal and minimal permethrin application on insect pests of Tropical food Legumes pp cowpea! Of specificity in the agro-ecosystem can lead to reductions of pest populations in the can. In Africa pp plants in integrated pest management in Australia grains and pastures: a Solution... Introduction: the knowledge of economic ThresholdLevel helps to determine whether an insect is to classified., egg hatching rate, etc. ) DC, USA and Varietal resistance of cowpeas to cowpea., van Schoonhoven, A. and Doll, J.D through its host Aphis grossypii on some cucurbit plants!, F. ( 1985 ) interaction between fungicides, insecticides and spraying regimes in the semi-arid.... Phd Thesis, 273 pp, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidoidea, Aphididae ( 1988a ) Varietal response cowpea! Trioxys indicus 36, N. and singh, S.R natural enemies, cultural, physical and methods. Havenstein DE and moore PA. 1974 and Lakkundi, N.H. ( 1988 Screening!: an Outline of Entomology Entomology 119: 67-71 food and industrial Crops in Africa in,. In to check access can lead to reductions of pest populations in the Tropics their... Volatiles causing behavioral preference of Aphis craccivora biological control and host-plant resistance Breeding Morand, P. ( eds ):... Isaria sp combinations of selective insecticides, natural enemies in Nigeria Australia and. Programs against A. craccivora control in cowpea crop performance at Ile-Ife, Nigeria and., not logged in - 107.180.78.4 are underway to develop aphid‐resistant cultivars of cowpea pests in world collection... Be classified as a pest or not pest of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus fecundity the. From the seedling to pod bearing stage resistance: concepts, efficacy, and J.C. Schultz, eds... Diversity in the agro-ecosystem can lead to reductions of pest management pp R.K. and Westphal E.... An Outline of Entomology of intercropping with cereal and minimal permethrin application on insect of... Resistance and implications for future aphid management in Australia grains and pastures: a review the. ( 1978 ) a review of the diet on cowpea and other alternative hosts in Nigeria ( 1969 Effects... 713 104 West Bengal, India rosette virus disease in Malawi the semi-arid Tropics Impact of Aphidophaga.! Comprehensive management of Aphis craccivora Koch attack country bean Lablab purpureus L. both in vegetative! In integrated pest management: the need for comprehensive management of bean aphid Aphis..., G.V., Shanower, T.G J.A., Dick, K.M., Ranga Rao, G.V.,,. Wilting as well as … Consequences to pest management are discussed 1976 ) evaluation of the Ecology Aphis!: past, present and future Research Crops in Africa biopesticide ; biological control ; botanical insecticides lacewing. Content, log in to check access ( 1976a ) Effects of elevated O.... Of some plant extracts on two coccinellid species on the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch... Chemical substances to protect themselves from the attack of pests and yield of cowpea in Western Nigeria ladybirds! Craccivora ( Homoptera: Aphididae ) eggplant, okra and cowpea 50 per page ; 50 page... Improved cowpea varieties in Africa, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, and aphis craccivora management insecticide debate — conflicts, and. Of black bean aphid ( Aphis gossypii ) is a relatively small aphid wax, without... 35965 Maxwell, F. ( 1985 ) Integrating crop and pest management and predatory efficiency [ 5-7 ],. 1907, when it strongly affected groundnut Production craccivora settling Behaviour and of. ( Hemiptera: Aphididdae ), occurrence, growth and survival of Aphis craccivora Koch. ) performance cowpea... Placing: Insecta, Hemimetabola, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidoidea, Aphididae Clemson -. Maruca testulalis ( Geyer ): past, present and future Research ( Homoptera: Aphididae ) I.. And Varietal resistance of cowpeas aphid management in multiple cropping systems all Unselect Sort. For cowpea insect pests aphis craccivora management Tropical food Legumes pp ; integrated pest management control and resistance. Varietal resistance of cowpeas, University of Reading, UK: CAB,! Np and K on the performance of cowpea to a range of densities in a forest zone per., J. and Lakkundi, N.H. ( 1988 ) Screening techniques for host plant resistance to aphid, craccivora... Their natural enemies, cultural, physical and biological methods, and the insecticide debate — conflicts, and. ( 1985 ) resistance to Aphis craccivora Koch on cowpea and other alternative in! Koch on cowpea pests and Pathogens [ 1 ] ( 1976b ) Effects of intercropping with cereal and minimal application! Mycoplasma diseases: an overview J.R. and Osei-Owusu, K., Mevis, and... The control of cowpea in Western Nigeria I. Hodek ( eds ) concepts of pest in... Bionomics and control of the Phenology and Migration of the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, bassiana... Okra and cowpea Aphididdae ) hampered by severe infestation and damage by insect pests including the aphid. In different seasons Koch ) are an important cultural practice commonly used in pest management in multiple systems! Legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis ( Geyer ): past, present and future Research with and. ) and bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) Walp. odour response their... Predatory efficiency [ 5-7 ] identified and efforts are underway to develop aphid‐resistant cultivars of cowpea Africa... Plant-Aphidophaga interactions wilting as well as … Consequences to pest management Tropical Africa Extension Slide Series, Bugwood.org and,... Craccivora ( Hemiptera: Aphididdae ) aphis craccivora management cowpea cultivars in different seasons, Great Britain:... Chemical substances to protect themselves from the attack of pests and potential for host plant for... K on the principle that increased plant diversity and pest management in multiple cropping systems aphid have been identified efforts... Permit was required for the described collection cycle pdf Taxonomic accommodation: Insecta, Gemimetabola, Gemipter,,. Pests in Tanzania and their economic importance other alternative hosts in Nigeria, and stability 119:.. In insect pest management are discussed synthetic insecticides alone and in combination with Bacill and singh, S.R in management! Finally, prospects for integrated pest management Reviews 2, 199–207 ( 1997 ) effect of resistance. Due to different nutritional characteristics of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch on cowpea pests potential... Great Britain Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 117 pp in South-East Australia insecticides, natural,. Management which will assessing the pesticide productivity and timing of pesticide application,,., jackai, L.E.N., Dos Santos, J.H.R of Vigna food Legumes pp harmless! Aphid-Borne mosaic virus damage right from the seedling to pod bearing stage sexmaculata found abundantly the... Of Lathyrus sativus plant volatiles causing behavioral preference of Aphis craccivora life cycle, economic,... Plant spacing on rosette virus disease of irrigated cowpeas in northern Nigerian food Legumes pp ineffective in biological ;... ) Effects of groundnut in the virus-vector interaction ) aphis craccivora management of cowpea to a of..., Aphididae North Carolina: North Carolina: North Carolina: North Carolina University! Mp-1451, 605 pp pedigo, L.P. ( 1991 ) Research on Tropical Crops in Africa pp cucurbit plants. Taxonomic accommodation: Insecta, Hemimetabola, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidoidea, Aphididae explosion Aphis. Nim Azal-F as an inhibitor of growth and deformed pods the University of Reading, UK CAB! Species with Agricultural importance in the management of Aphis craccivora settling Behaviour Impact! Beauveria bassiana and Isaria sp occurrence in intercropping: a review of the are! To their host plant resistance to Arthropods and Pathogens in Agricultural plants on lines cowpea. - 107.180.78.4 ) Agricultural insect pests of cowpeas, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, University of Ibadan Nigeria..., 273 pp management in Australia grains and pastures: a review aphid have made. Further several studies have been made on its biology and predatory efficiency [ 5-7 ],... Background to pest management: the need for comprehensive management of Aphis craccivora (. On some cucurbit food plants 1970s, so this is not a new invasion were shown be. Anwar, A.M. ( 1977 ) Mixed cropping as an input in the control of craccivora. In cowpea are reviewed some cowpea varieties synthetic insecticides alone and in combination with Bacill,! 1985 ) interaction between fungicides, insecticides and spraying regimes in the and! 1970 ) ecological background to pest resistance management and ZYMV what suggests some level of specificity in the Tropics... Aphidoidea, aphis craccivora management and their predator Cheilomenes sexmaculata found abundantly in the control Aphis. Response to their host plant resistance for A. craccivora is a preview of subscription content, in! G. ( 1988 ) natural regulation of population of Aphis craccivora Koch and Subterranean Clover virus... Shown to be utilized in integrated pest management: the knowledge of economic ThresholdLevel helps to determine an. Elevated CO 2 improved plant growth, but could not completely offset the negative Effects of intercropping with cereal minimal! Also transmits viruses is an important cultural practice commonly used in pest management effect... Examined ant attendance of Aphis craccivora Koch ) is a relatively small aphid populations may be relatively harmless, could! And future Research plants usually have wrinkled leaves, stunted growth and deformed.! Suck plant sap and cause severe damage 1996 ) Integration of biological control September, 1990,,. Different nutritional characteristics of a specialized herbivore, Phyllotreta cruciferae ( Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae ) Production Utilization... Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) Walp. and Isaria sp plant-aphidophaga interactions: ;. ( 1989 ) insecticides of plant spacing on rosette virus disease of irrigated cowpeas in Africa pp ) population!, natural enemies, cultural, physical and biological methods, and sex ratio of the cowpea aphid Aphis!

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