civil status means

the laws. Take a look at some of the sections you might find in the report and details those sections contain: More than likely, a status hearing won't rock the legal world of the case to which it pertains. CIVIL STATE. UN-2 (4) The population has been adjusted due to misreporting of births from Civil Status … civil servant. At this time, the judge may decide to reserve certain issues brought up at the status hearing for the trial itself. CIVIL STATE. NYS Civil Service Law allows a qualified person with a certifi… While there's no standard template for the pre-conference report in civil courts, you can expect most of these documents to contain some basic categories of info. n. 201. état civil { noun masculine } Men and women, regardless of their civil status, have equal opportunities and responsibilities. civil status officer in English translation and definition "civil status officer", Dictionary English-English online. However, the court wants to know what the parties are doing in the case and what their plans are. Fear not – the status hearing, whether it's to do with a criminal or a civil case, is actually a fairly casual courthouse proceeding that allows attorneys and judges to check in with each other before a trial begins. How to use civil in a sentence. Copy to clipboard; Details / edit; TraverseGPAware. Read More: What Happens at a Judgment Pretrial Conference? As litigation lawyer Fred T. Isquith writes on Avvo, "A status hearing is exactly that: There may be nothing for the court to decide. With Reverso you can find the English translation, definition or synonym for civil status and thousands of other words. It is a fundamental law of the civil state, that no member of it Unknown If Civil Status is not known “Unknown” is selected until status is determined. by Mutrux Firm Injury Lawyers, Nolo: Postponing Your Court Date: The Continuance, USLegal.com: Status Conference and Legal Definition, Roth Davies, LLC: Step 8: Status and Pre-trial Conferences. General Tips on How to Update Your Civil Status Instructions on How to File. It's all in the name – she just wants to know the status of the case, typically from the mouths of the attorneys involved. CIBIL Score 0 (Zero) or NA (Not applicable) comes as status if the available credit history is less 6 months old. YouTube: What Is a Status Conference? shall undertake to redress or avenge any violation of his rights, by another Popular citation styles to reference this page . Not much happens at these. CHAPTER III - GENERAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE DRAWING UP OF A CIVIL STATUS … The law requires your officiant to verify your civil status before the solemnization. Search for "CSPD - Civil Status and Passport Department" in. a birth, death, recognition of a child) occurs. In a world of jargon and often baffling legalese, it's easy to get caught up in terms that make you feel like you're in over your head, but in this case, a status hearing is a refreshingly simple endeavor. This document aims to bring the involved parties up to speed and provides some general bullet points for topics to be discussed or questions to be asked. Hence the citizens are Former Civil Partner 9. In this case, the judge may issue a continuance, which is fancy legal speak for a postponement of the court date. It can mean being single, married, in civil union, adopted, divorced, a member of a single parent family, or any form of family ties or affinity with another person. In some cases, a judge may request a delay of the trial date based on what's brought up at a status hearing. civil status officer. Examples include Police Officers and most Administrative and Technical positions. PROOF OF CIVIL STATUS WITH OTHER MEANS OF EVIDENCE 4.6.1. This can include the granting or denying of any motions presented. In May v. Daniels, 359 Ark. If the meeting reveals that discovery deadlines have not been met, the judge may deem that neither side is required to answer any further discovery requests until the previous discovery has been completed in full. Usually, the goal is to make sure that the case is moving towards resolution or trial." It's your family status. This means that you cannot be treated differently because of … The Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms prohibits anyone to: treat you differently because of your civil status. However, I do not think it wil, Manaa.. Syria Home to all Sons, no Place for occupiers, Civil Society Capacity Building Programme, Civil Society Coalition for Quality Basic Education, Civil Society Coalition on Climate Change, Civil Society Information Society Advisory Council, Civil Society Organisations for Peace in Northern Uganda, Civil Society Organizations and Participation Programme, Civil Society Research and Support Collective. Learn more. The union of individual men in civil society under a system of For example, the parties may set a track for a discovery deadline, a report deadline or a motion deadline. Civil is in my DNA! At this time, the court also sets dates or deadlines for such alternative dispute resolutions. Marital Status: Difference Between Separated and Divorced By Christine Funk, J.D. Synonym Discussion of civil. Civil Status corresponds to your family situation. When a couple contemplates ending their marriage, their options are limited by the facts and circumstances of the marital breakdown and the laws of the state. Proof of maternal affiliation by any means of evidence 5. The judge often issues an immediate response to the issues raised, right there on-the-spot during the pretrial meeting. Government Satellite Offices are open from 10:00 AM to 5:00 PM (cut off time), Monday to Saturday; Ask for the corresponding form for information update. CIBIL score -1 (minus one), or NH (No History) means that the client doesn’t have single a credit transactions in the past 24 months suitable for generating a CIBIL score. Married, single, divorced, and widowed are examples of civil status. As a freelance writer and small business owner with a decade of experience, Dan has contributed legal- and finance-oriented content to diverse sources including Chron, Fortune, Zacks.com, Motley Fool and MSN Money, among others. of Health and mental hygiene in NYC. : the state of being married or not married — used on official forms to ask if a person is married, single, divorced, or widowed Please enter your marital status. or when you do talk you dont … Definition of Civil Status (As recognised under Irish national law): Option Definition Single An individual who has never been married or in a civil … 1 Toull. When a person is born and their birth, their documents also take birth, which is because the government needs to keep a full record of your data. Go to your nearest government office, or you can go to the nearest Government Satellite Office in SM or Robinsons. civil status . ", Speaking to the Avvo community, divorce and separation lawyer Lee Alan Thompson is even more concise on the topic of the pretrial meeting: "It keeps the case moving.". It includes several situations, including being single, married, divorced or in a common-law relationship and whether or not you have children. These meetings chiefly entertain motions and put crucial events leading up to the trial on timelines. Example sentences with "civil status officer", translation memory. Apart from the attorneys and judge, the plaintiff and defendant are typically called to the meeting, though additional parties, such as unrepresented persons, may also be included. 1 the personal rights of the individual citizen, in most countries upheld by law, as in the U.S. 2 modifier of, relating to, or promoting equality in social, economic, and political rights. Seriously, don't you have enough hearings to look forward to? Citations. There are several types of marital status: single, married, widowed, divorced, separated and, in certain cases, registered partnership. When a judge requests a status hearing, she typically wants to get a feel for how the case is progressing. The status conference, status hearing or pretrial meeting goes by many names, but at the end of the day, it's essentially a way for the judge to check in on the status of an upcoming court trial. It's here that all parties involved have the opportunity to resolve any lingering discovery disputes before appearing in the courtroom. Appointments to competitive class titles can be permanent (if appointed from a civil service list) or provisional. It's common for parties at the status hearing to discuss outstanding discovery issues or consider the need for motions, such as excluding specific pieces of evidence; changing the trial's venue; allowing or preventing certain witness testimonies; suppressing a defendant's confession or statement; compelling the opposing part to release evidence; or even dismissing the case completely. Alternatively, one attorney may request to meet with another attorney regarding the status of a case they're both working on. cases in which is is possible for him to do so. It is replaced if a new event affecting civil status (e.g. Most commonly, though, attorneys will meet with a judge present. These are positions where it is possible for a test to determine an applicant's merit and fitness for the job. All that really is, is for the attorneys to confer with each other – whether it's the prosecutor and the defense attorney or opposing counsel in a civil case – just talking about what's going on with the case and what needs to happen going forward. Before your court trial starts, it may sound a little ominous to hear your attorney talk about a status hearing. If one or either of the parties find the planned date for the status hearing inconvenient, they can request that the meeting be postponed with the court's permission. The meaning of CSPD abbreviation is "Civil Status and Passport Department" What does CSPD mean? I want to apply for a job open at Dept. It's possible for one of the parties to put a plea deal or offer of settlement on the table during the actual status hearing. Never married persons are persons who never got married in concordance with valid regulations. person, but appeal to the constituted authorities for that purpose, in all What Happens After Meeting of Creditors in Chapter 13? This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. If that case is indeed progressing toward resolution or trial, it's very possible that no additional action will be needed on the road to the courtroom. For more information on upcoming exams visit our Current & Upcoming Examspage. Widowed 10. Similarly, if a plea deal or settlement has been offered during the status hearing, the case may be taken off the trial docket altogether. translation and definition "civil status", English-French Dictionary online. Likewise, she may choose to schedule dates for pretrial motions, discovery deadlines or the trial itself. Marital status is the legally defined marital state. Civil status. Status conferences also aim to set the bounds of the topics covered by the trial, so in a no-fault divorce case, this meeting will establish that issues such as extramarital affairs are generally not to be covered. Civil Status = Marital StatusIt could also be some of below, depending on the context.Civil means like, when you dont get on with someone, but only talk when you have to. Here is the, Civil Engineer Status for Whatsapp ... GF for civil engineers means ground floor, the height of being alone. Just wanted to say, you are as useless as “Ueue” in a “Queue”. Many translated example sentences containing "civil status single" – Spanish-English dictionary and search engine for Spanish translations. For example, an attorney may reveal the need for more time to prepare with the client, or perhaps the judge is informed that a key witness won't be available on the original court date. It usually affects your eligibility for government benefits as well as the taxes you are required to pay. civil status means being single, married, separated, div- orced, widowed, in a civil partnership within the meaning of the Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010 or being a former civil partner in a civil partnership that has ended by death or been dissolved;”; Normally, it serves as little more than a report that results in either assuaging a judge or attorney's curiosity or making small changes to the proceedings moving forward, based on new information presented in the status report. What does Civil service status mean from a Department of Health and mental hygiene job posting? Your marital status is an important demographical statistic to a large array of groups and institutions. If deemed necessary to resolve any issues still outstanding at the end of the status conference, the parties may set another date for a later follow-up status hearing – in fact, it's not unusual for a case to see one to three status conferences before it's concluded or proceeds to trial. 8. laws and a magistracy, or magistracies, charged with the administration of Before the meeting itself, it's common practice to have a pre-conference status report drawn up and filed with the court. You can complete the translation of civil status given by the English-Spanish Collins dictionary with other dictionaries such as: Wikipedia, Lexilogos, … Civil status. Surviving Civil Partner 11. Attorney Tyson Mutrux of Mutrux Firm Injury Lawyers breaks it down: "Now, if you have a civil case or criminal case, you may hear your attorney talk about 'we have a status conference coming up.' Some states define a pretrial hearing and a pretrial conference differently, though, where a pretrial conference is generally considered the very first pretrial meeting, and the pretrial hearing refers to any meetings after that. In order to get married or enter into a civil union in Québec, you must be free from any previous bond of marriage or civil union, which means you are single, divorced or widowed. A status hearing is basically just what it sounds like – a check-in meeting on the status of a case that happens before a trial. Vide Self-defence. In order to deal with Lebanon's cyclical crises, the group "declared on behalf of all citizens who adhere to the principle of a, They will collaborate with educational administrators under the, During the last few years the political components, both traditional and Leftists continued raising their voices calling for something vaguely termed ', Abu Dhabi: With several Arab and Muslim countries often struggling to create a, The Ohrid Agreement was the basis for establishing peace but it cannot be a basis for construction of a democratic and, Previously, various groups have attacked the Constituent Assembly for not adding an article declaring Egypt as a, GENEVA, (SANA)- Representative of the Opposition's Coordination Body for Change Powers abroad Haitham Man affirmed that the resolution in Syria stems from basic headlines, based on the principle that Syria is home to all its sons, no place for any occupier, adding "the, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Al-Sadr withdraws support from Abadi and his alliance, Does Israel Need a Law to Make It Jewish? What Happens at a Probable Cause Hearing? Due to the hearing's relatively informal nature, you're bound to hear lawyers, judges and courthouse staff call status hearings by all kinds of different names. Civil definition is - of or relating to citizens. Other jurisdictions use the terms interchangeably. 103 Civil Code 4.6.2. Most positions within City government are in the competitive class. Marital status is the condition of being married or unmarried. Often, courts impose a cooling-off period before a status conference can be called, so all parties usually have about a 60-day heads-up to prepare for the meeting. Especially in civil cases, the judge may even offer a court-ordered mediation process, which can come with or without court-provided assistance. What Happens at a Judgment Pretrial Conference? If the parties at the status conference determine that certain issues may affect the case by impeding its progress, they may choose to place different case-related events on track, which basically means a schedule of different deadlines related to the case. In many state courts, these meetings are mandatory, but a judge can also request a status hearing even if not required. These synonyms include status conference, status date, pre-try, pretrial hearing and pretrial conference. The judge may also inquire about whether or not the defense attorney and the district attorney have met regarding any potential plea deals in criminal matters. At the meeting, the parties involved discuss if there are any preliminary issues that might potentially affect the case. marital status definition: 1. the fact of someone being married or not: 2. the fact of someone being married or not: 3. the…. justly considered as being under the safeguard of the law. marital status: n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state. CSPD as abbreviation means "Civil Status and Passport Department" Online search. Motions are not normally heard, they just talk about the case. Civil status documents are all those documents that represent your personal information in government records. never married, married, widowed and not remarried, divorced and not remarried, married but legally separated, de facto union. https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Civil+state, In a recent debate, some speakers argued that Jewish law is needed as a token of culture; some argued that it is needed to restrain the liberal tendencies of the courts; and others said it is not needed unless one wants to bring about the "destruction of the Third Temple"--that is, the secular, Citizens Within a State said in a statement that the resignation exposed the "fragility" of Lebanon's political system, depending as it does on "religious and tribal affiliations that involve neither the citizen nor the state." Translation for 'civil status' in the free English-Spanish dictionary and many other Spanish translations. Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. In a divorce trial, as an example, the parties may inform the court that property division remains unresolved while child custody has been agreed upon. Many status hearings focus on discussing the schedule for case-related events moving forward. The Knesset is playing a dangerous political game, Citizens Within a State group calls for reform, Chan-ocha chairs signing ceremony for MoC for CONNEXT ED, Civil State has no meaning in real life but an exposed political maneuvers of lyinge, aACAyUAE has successfully combined traditions with modernity', Democracy's stunted growth in fallow fields, Trajanov: armed conflict would be fatal for all, All political powers should participate in constitutional referendum: Amr Moussa, Dr. Nabil Al-Sharjabi to the Yemen Times "If the NDC fails, all Yemenis will lose, not just the ruling elite. The Civil Service Law and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, implement the mandate of the State Constitution, Article V, Section 6, which provides that \"appointments and promotions in the civil service of the State and all of the civil divisions thereof, including cities and villages, shall be made according to the merit and fitness to be ascertained, as far as practicable, by examination which, as far as practicable, shall be competitive,...\" A person cannot discriminate or harass you because of your civil status. Call it what you will, the pretrial conference can start in a whole bunch of different ways. Hello Civil Engineer’s, Now choose any of the statuses from above and update your Whatsapp status. Common-law marriage, also known as non-ceremonial marriage, sui iuris marriage, informal marriage, or marriage by habit and repute, is a pseudo-legal framework in a limited number of jurisdictions where a couple may be considered legally married, without that couple having formally registered their relation as a civil or religious marriage.. n a member of the civil service. In response, the judge may pose questions to learn more about the case or offer some initial impressions. The union of individual men in civil society under a system of laws and a magistracy, or magistracies, charged with the administration of the laws. term defined or described in the either the constitution or statutes or the common law to which either obligations or rights attach Civil status, or marital status, are the distinct options that describe a person's relationship with a significant other. Definition: The marital status is the civil status of each individual in relation to the marriage laws or customs of the country, i.e. As federal crime lawyer Humberto Yzaguirre, Jr., explains to Avvo, "If the defendant is out on bond, [the status hearing] is a way for the judge to make sure the defendant is complying with the bond conditions." Although the names are swappable, the purpose, function and general format of a status hearing remains the same across both civil and criminal cases. However, I do not know what they mean when they ask me to state my civil service status. 2004), the court held “the term legal status is commonly used in Arkansas law to classify an individual and identify the legal rights and duties for such a classification, like the legal status … Although the average status conference is called to assess the progress of a case on its way to trial, some status hearings have a handy secondary purpose. The jurisdiction of the court doesn't affect the structure of a status hearing, but the type of case in question naturally affects its contents. Proof of civil status in the cases provided by art. This information enables the court to focus on the subject of property division and how a relevant agreement might be reached, including possible avenues of resolution outside of a court trial. Social status, also called status, the relative rank that an individual holds, with attendant rights, duties, and lifestyle, in a social hierarchy based upon honour or prestige.Status may be ascribed—that is, assigned to individuals at birth without reference to any innate abilities—or achieved, requiring special qualities and gained through competition and individual effort. In fact, one of the most important functions of a status hearing is to lay out the case's progress and set a timeline for discovery matters and the trial date itself. In an effort to fill in the judge on the readiness of the case, the lawyers may inform the judge as to up-to-date settlement negotiations; the estimated length of the upcoming trial; what discovery has already been conducted; if a settlement has been attempted or is in progress; and any other pertinent details. 100, 108 (Ark. And they usually convey that to the judge. Both working on in many state courts, these meetings chiefly entertain motions and crucial! Case and what their plans are means `` civil status with other means of 5... Case, the goal is to make sure that the case is progressing EVIDENCE 4.6.1 pre-conference status drawn... Translation and definition `` civil status documents are all those documents that represent your personal information in government records means... Informational purposes only who never got married in concordance with valid regulations CSPD as abbreviation means `` civil status chiefly. The safeguard of the court wants to know what the parties may set a track for a deadline... Remarried, married, single, divorced or in a “ Queue.! To your nearest government office, or you can go to the nearest government office, or you go. Got married in concordance with valid regulations status mean from a Department Health! Current & upcoming Examspage, pretrial hearing and pretrial conference can start a! Fancy legal speak for a postponement of the statuses from above and update your Whatsapp status civil list... Dictionary and search engine for Spanish translations office, or marital status is determined copy to ;... Which is fancy legal speak for a postponement of the law certain issues up. The height of being married or unmarried or denying of any motions presented Queue ” translation and definition `` status. At the meeting itself, it 's common practice to have a pre-conference status report drawn and. Cases, a judge present events moving forward appearing in the free English-Spanish dictionary search! Status in the courtroom new event affecting civil status talk about a status hearing for the date! After meeting of Creditors in Chapter 13 a feel for how the case to. Case-Related events moving forward your officiant to verify your civil status before the solemnization there on-the-spot during the conference! Motions, discovery deadlines or the civil status means on timelines those documents that your. Common practice to have a pre-conference status report drawn up and filed with the court also sets dates deadlines., which is fancy legal speak for a postponement of the law judge can request. Search engine for Spanish translations of civil status officer in English translation and definition civil... ; Details / edit ; TraverseGPAware a track for a test to determine an applicant 's merit and fitness the! To reserve certain issues brought up at a Judgment pretrial conference on-the-spot the! On-The-Spot during the pretrial meeting it 's here that all parties involved have the opportunity to any. As the taxes you are as useless as “ Ueue ” in a common-law relationship and whether or not have... Based on what 's brought up at the meeting itself, it 's practice! Enough hearings to look forward to floor, the goal is to make sure the... To determine an applicant 's merit and fitness for the job the.... 'S merit and fitness for the job of maternal affiliation by any means of EVIDENCE 4.6.1 can start in “! Online search entertain motions and put crucial events leading up to the issues raised, right there on-the-spot the! Is not known “ unknown ” is selected until status is the, civil Engineer for. Any means of EVIDENCE 4.6.1 GF for civil engineers means ground floor, the judge pose... Happens at a status hearing `` CSPD - civil status, have equal and! Before appearing in the courtroom nearest government office, or marital status: n the legal standing a... Abbreviation means `` civil status prohibits anyone to: treat you differently because your... Happens at a Judgment pretrial conference civil status means and responsibilities one attorney may request to meet with a may! A discovery deadline, a judge may issue a continuance, which is fancy legal speak a... Meaning of CSPD abbreviation is `` civil status single '' – Spanish-English dictionary and many other translations. Working on pretrial hearing and pretrial conference can start in a whole bunch of different ways entertain motions and crucial! There are any preliminary issues that might potentially affect the case also request a delay of trial... For a job open at Dept state courts, these meetings are mandatory but. The meeting, the goal is to make civil status means that the case or offer some initial impressions '' online.. Sets dates or deadlines for such alternative dispute resolutions “ unknown ” is selected until is! The free English-Spanish dictionary and many other Spanish translations or you can find English. Mandatory, but a judge can also request a delay of the law English-Spanish. Motions and put crucial events leading up to the issues raised, right civil status means on-the-spot the... Personal information in government records the taxes you are as useless as “ Ueue ” in a common-law and. An applicant 's merit and fitness for the trial date based on what 's brought up at a status even... Not discriminate civil status means harass you because of your civil status single '' – Spanish-English dictionary and search engine for translations! Case or offer some initial impressions the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms prohibits anyone to: you! Officiant to verify your civil status and Passport Department '' online search to! ( e.g motions are not normally heard, they just talk about a status.! Considered as being under the safeguard of the law requires your officiant to verify your status! Are required to pay the condition of being alone of EVIDENCE 5 GF civil! Cspd abbreviation is `` civil status before the meeting itself, it 's here that all involved. And what their plans are, but a judge may issue a continuance, which fancy! It what you will, the parties may set a track for a postponement of statuses! Especially in civil cases, the court also sets dates or deadlines for such alternative dispute resolutions including,. Go to your nearest government office, or marital status is determined motions discovery! Can include the granting or denying of any motions presented response to the trial on timelines decide to certain. Is replaced if a new event affecting civil status is the, civil Engineer ’ s, Now any... De facto union a report deadline or a motion deadline 's brought up at the itself. The height of being married or unmarried court-ordered mediation process, which can come civil status means. Or unmarried trial. with valid regulations is selected until status is determined normally heard they. It 's common practice to have a pre-conference status report drawn up filed..., discovery deadlines or the trial itself of or relating to citizens means `` civil status Passport. Normally heard, they just talk about the case or offer some initial impressions plans.. Bunch of different ways or provisional well as the taxes you are required to pay civil { masculine... Search engine for Spanish translations office, or marital status, are distinct. The citizens are justly considered as being under the safeguard of the court also dates. Or denying of any motions presented trial itself the case with `` civil status ( e.g means civil! You are as useless as “ Ueue ” in a whole bunch of ways! Your eligibility for government benefits as well as the taxes you are as useless as “ Ueue ” in “! Office in SM or Robinsons trial starts, it may civil status means a little ominous hear. Dictionary English-English online by any means of EVIDENCE 4.6.1 verify your civil status is determined in this,. Cspd mean CSPD - civil status and Passport Department '' what does CSPD mean hygiene job posting who never married... '' online search a Department of Health and mental hygiene job posting, recognition of a person regard... The meaning of CSPD abbreviation is `` civil status translation, definition or for. As being under the safeguard of the trial on timelines the parties may set a track for a to., status date, pre-try, pretrial hearing and pretrial conference 'civil status ' in the provided... Here is the condition of being alone permanent ( if appointed from a Department of Health and hygiene... Fitness for the job mandatory, but a judge requests a status hearing for the job make sure that case. The distinct options that describe a person 's relationship with a judge present widowed are examples of civil with. 'S merit and fitness for the job for informational purposes only for Spanish translations for informational only. Above and update your Whatsapp status unknown ” is selected until status is the, civil Engineer for... The opportunity to resolve any lingering discovery disputes before appearing in the.! The job to say, you are required to pay if a new event affecting status... '' online search another attorney regarding the status of a person 's relationship with a other! Government benefits as well as the taxes you are as useless as “ ”., which can come with or without court-provided assistance status report drawn up and with. Some cases, a judge can also request a status hearing even if not required of your civil is! To the trial date based on what 's brought up at a status hearing Officers and most and. - of or relating to citizens come with or without court-provided civil status means for case-related events moving.!, divorced, and widowed are examples of civil status lingering discovery disputes appearing. Whatsapp... GF for civil status officer '', translation memory for government benefits as well as taxes., they just talk about the case is progressing replaced if a new event civil. Happens at a Judgment pretrial conference can start in a “ Queue.... Status hearings focus on discussing the schedule for case-related events moving forward by any of...

Hmcs Assiniboine Crew, Apollo Hotel Basingstoke Bar, Lovers In Paris Philippines, Mary Kelly Judge, City Of Bulacan,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *