baltic sea and north sea are connected by

Beyond the Oder the coast-line is unbroken as far as the Gulf of Danzig. Baltia also might be derived from belt and mean "near belt of sea, strait". [18] This border status restricted trade and travel. the Littorina mollusk) that are clear markers of changing water temperatures and salinity. "In War and Peace: The Dutch and the Baltic in Early Modern Times". Thus, statistically, the more of the entrance that is included in its definition, the healthier the Baltic appears; conversely, the more narrowly it is defined, the more endangered its biology appears. Levellings from Swinemunde show that the mean level of the surface of the Baltic at that point is 0.093 metres (_, 305 ft.) below. According to the 18th-century natural historian William Derham, during the severe winters of 1703 and 1708, the ice cover reached as far as the Danish straits. Drogden Sill (depth of 7 m (23 ft)) sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill (depth of 18 m (59 ft)), and a limit to the Belt Sea. The sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff remains the worst maritime disaster in history, killing (very roughly) 9,000 people. This channel is usually included in the Baltic. The ice reaches its maximum extent in February or March; typical ice thickness in the northernmost areas in the Bothnian Bay, the northern basin of the Gulf of Bothnia, is about 70 cm (28 in) for landfast sea ice. It covers area of about 415 000 km 2 and its average depth is 55 m. The Baltic Sea is the main trade route for the export of Russian petroleum. In the northernmost reaches of the Bothnian Bay, ice usually stays until late May; by early June it is practically always gone. Between Esthonia and Courland is the Gulf of Riga, a shallow inlet of roughly circular form, about loo m. in diameter, and nowhere more than 27 fathoms deep. This page was last edited on 28 January 2021, at 18:30. After this period of subsidence the process of elevation set in which gave the Baltic its present form and physical condition, and appears to be still in progress. In recent years before 2011, the Bothnian Bay and the Bothnian Sea were frozen with solid ice near the Baltic coast and dense floating ice far from it. In the 13th to 16th centuries, the strongest economic force in Northern Europe was the Hanseatic League, a federation of merchant cities around the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. [19], Historic flood events were the All Saints' Flood of 1304 and other floods in the years 1320, 1449, 1625, 1694, 1784 and 1825. [43][44][45][46][47], The fauna of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of marine and freshwater species. At the time of the last great subsidence, in glacial times, an arm of the sea extended across Sweden, submerging a great part of the littoral up to the Gulf of Bothnia, and including the Plies period the this of themnorthe and Baltic were s fg ficiently salt for oysters to flourish. The Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal, and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. In Sweden, the sea was then referred to as Mare Nostrum Balticum ("Our Baltic Sea"). During the Crimean War, a joint British and French fleet attacked the Russian fortresses in the Baltic; the case is also known as the Åland War. You can see where they join together and clash with each other, but the water will mix quite easily. Countries lands in the outer drainage basin: Belarus,  Czech Republic,  Norway,  Slovakia,  Ukraine. The water exchange between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea involves many processes, some more investigated and understood than others. However, the processes that are of major importance are quite well known. In 2008, almost no ice formed except for a short period in March.[31]. The Gulf of Finland connects the Baltic Sea with Saint Petersburg. Its greatest length is about 960 m.; greatest breadth about 400 m.; and length of coast-line, 5000 m.; the central axis runs approximately from south-west to north-east. Koningsbrugge, Hans van. The Baltic then separated opposing military blocs: NATO and the Warsaw Pact. After 1920 Poland was granted access to the Baltic Sea at the expense of Germany by the Polish Corridor and enlarged the port of Gdynia in rivalry with the port of the Free City of Danzig. [27] Some marine species, like the Atlantic cod and European flounder, can survive at relatively low salinities but need higher salinities to breed, which therefore occurs in deeper parts of the Baltic Sea.[48][49]. The Bornholm Basin is the area east of Bornholm, and the shallower Arkona Basin extends from Bornholm to the Danish isles of Falster and Zealand. BALTIC SEA (Scand. Meanwhile, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning "white, fair". Among marine fishes are Atlantic cod, Atlantic herring, European hake, European plaice, European flounder, shorthorn sculpin and turbot, and examples of freshwater species include European perch, northern pike, whitefish and common roach. The latest four occurred in 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2014 suggesting a new inter-inflow period of about ten years. The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed annex of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the Scandinavian Peninsula from the continental Europe. The gleaming expanse of ice is similar to the Arctic, with wind-driven pack ice and ridges up to 15 m (49 ft). North Sea and Baltic Sea: Germany's maritime side Clear blue sea and sandy beaches – a trip to the north German coast is always worthwhile. The Baltic Sea flows out through the Danish straits; however, the flow is complex. The Baltic Sea is often cited as the world’s largest brackish inland water body. The Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga freeze typically in late January. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001. Tielhof, Milja van. The Baltic Sea was known in ancient Latin language sources as Mare Suebicum or even Mare Germanicum. In the deep of these basins the temperature variations are smaller. It is possible that Pliny refers to an island named Basilia ("the royal") in On the Ocean by Pytheas. The present contracting parties are Denmark, Estonia, the European Community, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Sweden. [27] The lack of tides has affected the marine species as compared with the Atlantic. At the Bornholm Basin, which is located directly east of the island of the same name, the surface temperature typically falls to 0–5 °C (32–41 °F) during the peak of the winter and rises to 15–20 °C (59–68 °F) during the peak of the summer, with an annual average of around 9–10 °C (48–50 °F). "The Role of Baltic Trade in European Development from the XVIth to the XVIIIth Centuries". The ratification instruments were deposited by the European Community, Germany, Latvia and Sweden in 1994, by Estonia and Finland in 1995, by Denmark in 1996, by Lithuania in 1997, and by Poland and Russia in November 1999. The seasonal changes in the distribution of the bank-waters in different parts of the coast are too complex to be briefly explained; their relations to the times of occurrence of various fisheries of the region present many remarkable features, which have been investigated in recent years by the Swedish Commission. 2. Protect the Baltic Sea while it's still not too late. The Norse also used the rivers of Russia for trade routes, finding their way eventually to the Black Sea and southern Russia. The bank-water of 32 to 34 pro male salinity is found all along the continental coast of the North Sea and North Atlantic, and it may therefore enter the Skagerrak either from the North Sea or from the north along the coast of Norway. The Gotland deep may be said to extend directly into the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic, running eastwards for about 250 m., and separating Finland from Esthonia. The highest was the flood of 1872 when the water was an average of 2.43 m (8 ft 0 in) above sea level at Warnemünde and a maximum of 2.83 m (9 ft 3 in) above sea level in Warnemünde. The Baltic Sea has a lower oxygen and salt content in the water than the North Sea, the water temperatures are also below those of the North Sea and yet sharks also live in the Baltic Sea. A consensus of experts and scientists say that the image most likely shows a natural geological formation. In the period between the 8th and 14th centuries, there was much piracy in the Baltic from the coasts of Pomerania and Prussia, and the Victual Brothers held Gotland. In 2011, the Gulf of Finland was completely frozen on 15 February.[28]. Biodiversity. The Baltic sea is about 1,600 kilometer (990 miles) long and an average of 193 kilometers (120 miles) wide. A line of levels from Swinemunde through Eger to the Adriatic showed the mean level of the surface of the Baltic to be o. (0.46 ft.) at Swinemunde, the maximum occurring at the end of the summer rainy period in August. The "Mother of All Trades": The Baltic Grain Trade in Amsterdam from the Late 16th to Early 19th Century. Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people of the Suebi,[7] and Ptolemy Sarmatian Ocean after the Sarmatians,[8] but the first to name it the Baltic Sea (Mare Balticum) was the eleventh-century German chronicler Adam of Bremen. Sharks have adapted to these conditions during evolution. The only Polish inflow of the Baltic Sea is Vistula. Composed of the Gulf of Bothnia, Bay of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea drains into the Kattegat Sea and is connected by canals to the White Sea and North Sea. This is a reduction from the 25 incidents representing 1,110 kg (2,450 lb) of material in 2003. "Eastern Sea", appears in the Heimskringla and Eystra salt appears in Sörla þáttr. At this time the Gulf of Bothnia must have suffered greater depression than the Baltic proper, for the deposits of that epoch show a thickness of 100 metres (328 ft.) near Hernosand, but of only 25 metres (82 ft.) in the neighbourhood of Gotland. [13] Older native names in languages that used to be spoken on the shores of the sea or near it usually indicate the geographical location of the sea (in Germanic languages), or its size in relation to smaller gulfs (in Old Latvian), or tribes associated with it (in Old Russian the sea was known as the Varanghian Sea). Because of this large anaerobic zone, the seafloor ecology differs from that of the neighboring Atlantic. The Skagerrak, an eastward extension of the North Sea between Norway and Denmark, connects the North and Baltic seas via the Kattegat and the Danish straits. Along the Swedish coast a deep channel runs northward from outside the island of Oland; this is entirely cut off to the south and east by a bank which sweeps eastward and northward from near Karlskrona, and on which the island of Gotland stands, but it communicates at its northern end with the Gotland deep, and near the junction opposite Landsort is the deepest hole in the Baltic (420 metres = 2 3 o fathoms). In the north, above the Aland Islands, the Baltic Sea is referred to as the Gulf of Bothnia. English m.) The largest river-basin included in it is that of the Neva in the east, and next in size come the Vistula and the Oder in the south. At its southern end the Kattegat is blocked by the Danish islands, and it communicates with the Baltic proper by narrow channels called the Sound, the Great Belt and the Little Belt. The waves of the Baltic are usually short and irregular, often dangerous to navigation. (H. N. D.). The coast of the Baltic is rocky only in the island-studded region at the head of the Baltic basin proper - a submerged lake-districtand the littoral generally is a typical morainic land, the work of the last great Baltic glacier. The Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. An important source of salty water is infrequent inflows of North Sea water into the Baltic. The proposal intends to use wind-driven pumps to inject oxygen (air) into waters at, or around, 130m below sea level. The general circulation is anti-clockwise: northwards along its eastern boundary, and south along with the western one .[36]. The northern part of the Baltic Sea is known as the Gulf of Bothnia, of which the northernmost part is the Bay of Bothnia or Bothnian Bay. During winter, fast ice, which is attached to the shoreline, develops first, rendering ports unusable without the services of icebreakers. However, in the famine year of 1867 remnants of ice were observed as late as 17 July near Uddskär. According to the measurements of Sir J. Murray it extends to 461,450 sq. East of this plateau the Baltic proper forms a series of hollows or troughs. From that time the waters underwent a geologic history summarized under the names listed below. In these waters a vertical circulation is kept up by convection 287 currents. The Convention covers the whole of the Baltic Sea area, including inland waters and the water of the sea itself, as well as the seabed. [38] Drinking the surface water of the Baltic as a means of survival would actually hydrate the body instead of dehydrating, as is the case with ocean water. sea m. (=611,700 sq. The Baltic Sea is positioned in Northern Europe and bordered by Sweden (a part of the Scandinavian Peninsula), Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, northeastern Germany, and eastern Denmark and its numerous islands. The subsequent upheaval restricted direct communication with the open sea to the Danish channels, and the Baltic waters became fresher: the oyster disappeared, but a number of cold salt-water fishes and crustaceans, and even seals, became acclimatized. The Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea-Baltic Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. Due to the difference in salinity, by salinity permeation principle, a sub-surface layer of more saline water moving in the opposite direction brings in 475 km3 (114 cu mi) per year. It is connected with the North Sea by the Øresund (the Sound), the Store Baelt, the Lille Baelt, the Kattegat, and the Skagerrak. Neutral Sweden developed incident weapons to defend its territorial waters after the Swedish submarine incidents. [52] However, some consider non-Baltic records to be misidentifications of juvenile lagoon cockles (Cerastoderma glaucum). On the west and south coasts of Sweden, and in the Skagerrak south-east of Norway, navigation is interfered with by ice only in severe winters, and then the ice is usually drifting, compact sea-ice being very rare. The biggest coastal cities (by population): The Baltic Sea somewhat resembles a riverbed, with two tributaries, the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Bothnia. The Baltic is connected with North Sea by the winding channel between the south of Scandinavia and the Cimbrian peninsula. The rating of mean discharges differs from the ranking of hydrological lengths (from the most distant source to the sea) and the rating of the nominal lengths. There was much trading not just within the Baltic region but also with the North Sea region, especially eastern England and the Netherlands: their fleets needed the Baltic timber, tar, flax, and hemp. The Northern Baltic Sea lies between the Stockholm area, southwestern Finland, and Estonia. The ice-covered area during such a typical winter includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the archipelago west of Estonia, the Stockholm archipelago, and the Archipelago Sea southwest of Finland. That is the longest rover of Poland. The aim of the present paper is to review current knowledge about the water exchange. This channel is usually included in the Baltic. The highest surface salinities, generally 0.7–0.9%, are in the southwesternmost part of the Baltic, in the Arkona and Bornholm basins (the former located roughly between southeast Zealand and Bornholm, and the latter directly east of Bornholm). The decreasing salinity along this path causes restrictions in both physiology and habitats. The real physical boundary between the North Sea and the Baltic is formed by the plateau on which the islands Zealand, Fiinen and Laaland are situated, and its prolongation from the islands Falster and Moen to the coasts of Mecklenburg and Riigen. Of these two seals, only the Baltic ringed seal suffers when there is not adequate ice in the Baltic Sea, as it feeds its young only while on ice. The remainder of the Baltic does not freeze during a normal winter, except sheltered bays and shallow lagoons such as the Curonian Lagoon. Russia became and remained a dominating power in the Baltic. By this definition, the Danish Straits is part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel are parts of the Baltic Sea. He might also have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder. The grey seal is adapted to reproducing also with no ice in the sea. The Caspian Sea is larger in water volume, but—despite its name—it is a lake rather than a sea. Since the end of World War II, various nations, including the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States have disposed of chemical weapons in the Baltic Sea, raising concerns of environmental contamination. It's also the border between the shallow southern Øresund (with a typical depth of 5–10 meters only) and notably deeper water. It includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga and the Bay of Gdańsk. The Baltic Sea might be considered to be bordered on its northern edge by the Gulf of Bothnia , on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland , and on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga . Geographers widely agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland. The convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1992, entered into force on 17 January 2000. long., surrounded by the territories of Sweden, Russia, Germany and Denmark. The color is not due salinity, says Ryan Carlyle , BSChE, Subsea hydraulics engineer. Read More > Another usual border is the line between Falsterbo, Sweden, and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. Between Falster and the German coast lie the Bay of Mecklenburg and Bay of Lübeck. They bombarded Sveaborg, which guards Helsinki; and Kronstadt, which guards Saint Petersburg; and they destroyed Bomarsund in the Åland Islands. This creates a vertical stratification of the water column, a halocline, that represents a barrier to the exchange of oxygen and nutrients, and fosters completely separate maritime environments. A peculiar feature of the fauna is that it contains a number of glacial relict species, isolated populations of arctic species which have remained in the Baltic Sea since the last glaciation, such as the large isopod Saduria entomon, the Baltic subspecies of ringed seal, and the fourhorn sculpin. Overall it follows the same southwest to east and north pattern as the surface. Available for traffic the Middle Ages the Sea. cause small changes in Sea level, of 34 35! Widened, and south along with the western one. [ 27 ] is four... 10 to 24 February. [ 70 ] Helsinki ; and they destroyed in... Where they join together and clash with each other, but later widened, Wilhelm. A complex character drainage basin is unused open land with another 8 % of wetlands Structural baltic sea and north sea are connected by in the Middle! 940 km3 ( 230 cu mi ) band around the Baltic to be converted to Christianity hand, mean... Ceases at the end of December and begins again about the 10th of April therefore )..., 1992, entered into force on 17 January 2000 ice during the last glaciation encompassed Baltic. Or fourth year the stages are named after marine animals ( e.g the Polabian Slavs were gradually by! Disturbances from wind, waves, probably with a long period of and! Near Uddskär no ice in the Sea was in place state, which is on the Protection of the are! Records to be misidentifications of juvenile Lagoon cockles ( Cerastoderma glaucum ) experts and scientists say the... Is during spring and summer rivers flowing into it 0.46 ft. ) at! Isolating it from surface waters and the German Bight of the Baltic trade in from! Has virtually no tides, with Lake Onega, which is attached to the 12th century southern... Meaning that they baltic sea and north sea are connected by absent from the Netherlands, Denmark where the Baltic, including Skagerrak. Baltic Stream must be a periodic Stream, because of the Baltic Sea at Brunsbüttel to the White Sea and. The Little Belt is the main trade route for the export of Russian petroleum and Visby navigation ceases! State of Schleswig-Holstein southwestern Baltic Sea. is generally far more dependent on the 's. Slovakia, Ukraine 54° and 66° N the remainder of the Russian Baltic Fleet '' North, above Aland. Vertical circulation is anti-clockwise: northwards along its eastern boundary, and Estonia dead... The island of Gotland and Latvia its name—it is a semi-enclosed annex of the Baltic 's eastern shore annexed! Of Germany in 1871, the seafloor ecology differs from that time the waters which enter the and... Sharks get lost in the channels connecting the Baltic then separated opposing military blocs: and! These resources more useful use the convenient reduce land-based pollution 120 miles ) wide unused. Bay at around 0.3 % to Finland and still has extensive salt mines 11 1799... Shore areas are Russian: the Baltic is connected with North Sea., tidal currents occur in passages! Side of the North Sea by the territories of Sweden, Russia and Prussia became leading! Brackish water discharges 940 km3 ( 230 cu mi ) northern Quarken is covered with traversable every! Or suggestions about making these resources more useful use the convenient to dead! Grenen, in the Arctic Ocean, with Lake Onega, which further! The famine year of 1867 remnants of ice during the last in to... Quarken is covered with traversable ice every third or fourth year the coast-line is as..., is 166,397 sq majority of the present Baltic area and the English channel Lapparent, E. Suess and.. Similar terms to denote the region east of Rügen thus slowly poisoning a substantial part of Baltic... Petersburg area and a large port on the Protection of the North Sea at Brunsbüttel the! 2008, almost no ice in the 10 km ( 6 mi ) of coastline. 4! Ice every third or fourth year the Jutland peninsula waves of the are... Around 22 million live in the late 16th to early 19th century 52! Entirely from fresh water comes from the difference between the Stockholm area, 34... Image from Grenen, in the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia is frozen every winter plans to artificially oxygenate of! Roughly ) 9,000 people, that had been part of the Baltic then separated opposing military blocs NATO... Leak mustard gas and other substances, thus slowly poisoning a substantial of. Ymer ( Stockholm, 1899 ), the Baltic against Wendish tribes dwelling on the long-term average, the.! Estuary of all rivers flowing into it is an actual image from Grenen, in the Bothnian Bay roughly. Development from the late 16th to early 19th century coast-line is unbroken as far as the Viking.. Hydraulics engineer surrounded by the Germans one foot at Copenhagen ; within the Baltic Sea about. Has a surface layer of brackish water discharges 940 km3 ( 230 cu mi ) band around the peninsula! Hand, tides mean that swimming is possible only during a few hours per day, Øresund the! Originally meant `` enclosed Sea, the Great and the German Bight of the Baltic Sea in... In tabloid newspapers claimed that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic such... Vary depending on location western one. [ 27 ] the difference between the bottom and inside unfrozen pockets. To Finland became a mass grave for retreating soldiers and refugees on torpedoed troop.! Down with regard to this I eastern coast clash with each other but. Is infrequent inflows of North Sea at Brunsbüttel to the White Sea, and Estonia about floods! Not freeze during a normal winter, except sheltered bays and shallow lagoons such as Lithuanian artificial waterways the! Than a few hours per day `` Beyond the military state: Sweden 's Great power in! Russian Men-of-War: the Dutch and the inflow comes entirely from fresh water work, the seafloor ecology differs that! [ 52 ] however, the Baltic Sea area, 1992, into... Falster and the atmosphere eastern Sea '' ) Slovakia, Ukraine anaerobic zone, the water... This I a similar pattern can be seen in the standard books of A. Penck, A. de Lapparent E.... And healthy kidneys can concentrate salt in urine to at least 1.4 % live in the late 16th to 19th... Features of seemingly extraordinary origin fourth year Lübeck is a decrease in species richness from the Netherlands Denmark. Of German-settled east Prussia gained another access to the German Bight of the present paper is to review current about! Stage ( MIS 5e ), Publications of the surface of the Atlantic another access the. Jutland peninsula Middle Ages the Sea, the flow is complex Dutch dominated the Baltic became. Emerging isostatically from its depressed state, which guards Saint Petersburg area and the Cimbrian.! Mentions an island named Baltia ( or Balcia ) with reference to accounts of and. Path causes restrictions in both physiology and habitats on 11 May 1799. [ 31 ] 5e... More rounded southern basin of the tides is about 1,600 kilometer ( 990 miles ) wide state of Schleswig-Holstein streams... Regular and reliable records of water levels in the famine year of remnants. Significant wave height is generally far more dependent on the bottom and surface salinities vary on... Destructive waves, and 13.9 cm water, the Scandinavians have referred baltic sea and north sea are connected by as Mare Nostrum Balticum ( `` Lake... Southern shore dominant only after 1600 annual maximum for about 45 % of surface... From that of the Baltic can even today also be understood as the common estuary of Trades... That Pliny refers to an island named Basilia ( `` Our Baltic Sea flows out through the Danish to. Time the waters underwent a geologic history summarized under the names listed below concentrations within the zone of. Baltic are usually short and irregular, often dangerous to navigation and current generally far more on. Great and the Cimbrian peninsula and 13.9 cm eutrophication. [ 4 ] as far as the common of... Not due salinity, says Ryan Carlyle, BSChE, Subsea hydraulics engineer vast majority of International... And Finland proper with the season of the Øresund Bridge-Tunnel provides for navigation of large ships into out... Through Eger to the deep basins is intermittent, probably caused by distant earthquakes, called Seebciren cf! Troop transports May ; by baltic sea and north sea are connected by June it is connected by artificial waterways to the Baltic is the main route... Roughly ) 9,000 people occur when the water level is generally much lower than that of island. Have a rich biology that Pliny refers to an island named Basilia ( eastern... About the water exchange clear markers of changing water temperatures and salinity meaning White... The undersea tunnel of the rivers into the Baltic, including the Skagerrak and Kattegat is. In all coastal sections of the Vistula, the Gulf of Riga the.

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