literature review on child labour

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Child labour phenomenon is common in developing countries and there is growing literature on this issue and empirical evidences as well. [...], The growing concern of poverty is a prevalent issue that prevents many individuals from succeeding. Of these 250 million, 61% are in Asia, 32% in Africa and 7% are in Latin America (Sharma and Bhatia,2009). 1) shows the studies selection process. Unfortunately, the results show that these children are at risk of developing short and long-term health complications, physically or mentally. India and Child Labor India is a developing country, according to the CIA’s The World Fact Book (2011). We review the most recent evidence on the health impacts of child labor in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) according to the World Bank classification. This paper exposes the reality of why kids may actively participate. We retrieved 1050 studies on PubMed and 833 studies on Science Direct, with no duplicates in the search results. Literature Review of Child Labour This comprehensive literature review of child labour summarises the literature on child time allocation, the types of work children participate in, the impact of work on schooling, health, and externalities associated with child work. Several studies have shown that in many countries children attend school and also work; part-time child labor can still be harmful for human capital accumulation since it does compete with other human capital that may be considered developing activities such as studying at home(Galli,2001). Concerning physical health, many studies reported the prevalence of general symptoms (fever, cough and stunting) or diseases (malnutrition, anemia and infectious diseases). Further research following a common approach in assessing child labor impacts in different countries is needed. Long, strenuous hours of activity affect a child‟s mental health, physical health, social development and general wellbeing and, often interfere with his/her education. On the macroeconomic side child labor is the cause for negative long run growth and social development through a reduced human capital accumulation. It is a human Foroughi M, Moayedi-Nia S, Shoghli A et al. Child labor subjects children to abuse, whether verbally, physically or sexually which ultimately results in psychological disturbances and behavioral disorders. (2017, September 19). Workers in manufacturing had a significantly increased risk for musculoskeletal pain and back pain, while child workers in domestic services had 17% more musculoskeletal pain and 23% more back pain than non-workers. Boys were more exposed. Quality of included studies was rated as fair to good. This push onto the street causes kids to make early independent decisions, such as finding a job. Younger children were more likely to suffer from backaches and other health problems (infection, burns and lung diseases), while probability of reporting tiredness/exhaustion was greater in the oldest age group. Hosseinpour M, Mohammadzadeh M, Atoofi M. Hamdan-Mansour AM, Al-Gamal E, Sultan MK et al. Large number of children are unpaid workers in their own family businesses, many of which depend on their family’s labor to survive. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/09/19/progress-slows-ending-child-labor. So more than a third of boys, and one out of two Indian girls did not attend school in 1991; at the same time, they were not considered as child laborers. In 2015 in Ghana, 91.8% (or a total of 878,595) of the children working in the cocoa sector were involved in a form of hazardous work. Reviewing roughly 13 sources, this paper explains the effects of child labor affecting 250 million kids globally, child labor is an endangerment to society (Elena,2014). The ILO took its first stance in 1973 by setting the minimum age for work.4 Nevertheless, the ILO and other international organizations that target the issue failed to achieve goals. We have not reviewed the policies targeting child labor here, yet our findings show that regardless of policies in place, further action is needed. The extraction form was piloted to ensure standardization of data collection. (n.d.). They reported that the sexual assault rate was 77.7%. Two authors extracted the data using a standardized data extraction form. Geneva . Child Labor LITERATURE REVIEW (Dessy, 2003), “Shows the Harmful forms of child labor have an economic role: by maintaining wages for child labor high enough, they allow human capital accumulation in poor countries. With children working full-time jobs it has a negative impact on school attendance. Most of the current literature about child labor follow a cross-sectional design, which although can reflect the health status of working children, it cannot establish cause–effect associations. A meta-analysis on the topic was published in 20 07.8 However, authors reported only an association of child labor with higher mortality and morbidity than in the general population, without reporting individual outcome specific effects.8 Another meta-analysis investigated the effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child labor, on health. With the renewed interest in child labour as an economic and social problem, researchers have attempted to assess its linkages to the core elements of human capital, hoping to solve continuing riddles in development policy and improve the quality of life for the world¿s … Literature Review. On PubMed, we added […AND (poverty OR ‘low income’ OR ‘developing countries’)] to increase the specificity of results; otherwise, the search results were ~60 times more, with the majority of studies being irrelevant. Hughes K, Bellis MA, Hardcastle KA et al. Engagement of children or adolescents in work with no influence on their health and schooling is usually regarded positive. Ambadekar NN, Wahab SN, Zodpey SP et al. Finances were of great concern at the time for all of America. From the year, 2000 up until 2012 child labor has fallen from 250 million to 168 million. The next step would be to implement a strong set of effective laws and enforce penalties for people continuing to exploit children. In Cameroon, children who don’t go to school, like orphans for example, work full-time in places like cocoa and coffee plantations (Ndinela,2006). For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Gender is one of the key factors on whether a child participates in the work force or not. In recent years, a growing number of authors have turned their attention to the question of why children work. Total score was the number of items positively evaluated. Falling from heights or in horizontal surface was the most common mechanism of injury (44%). Nevertheless, to minimize bias, we employed rigorous search methods including an extensive and comprehensive search, and data extraction by two independent reviewers. A study conducted in Jordan reported a significant difference in the level of coping efficacy and psychosocial health between working non-schooled children, working school children and non-working school children. Galli continues speaking that more schooling means higher human capital, in turn leading to higher a more efficient labor market and a higher productivity. Diss. Review begins discussing on Our search algorithm was [(‘child labor’ OR ‘child labor’ OR ‘working children’ OR ‘occupational health’ OR ‘Adolescent work’ OR ‘working adolescents’) AND (Health OR medical)]. that their findings could have been tampered by selection bias or healthy worker effect. ).EncyclopediaofSocialMovementMedia.doi:10.4135/9781412979313.n163, Why do we still have Child Labour?-New Lanark. In 2016, it was estimated that ~150 million children under the age of 14 are engaged in labor worldwide, with most of them working under circumstances that denies them a playful childhood and jeopardize their health.7 Most working children are 11–14 years, but around 60 million are 5–11 years old.7 There are no exact numbers of the distribution of child labor globally; however, available statistics show that 96% of child workers are in Africa, Asia and Latin America.1. 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