pn junction diode characteristics

The circuit diagrams to study forward bias characteristic of p-n junction diode is shown in figure 10. We have seen the characteristics of pn junction diode through its graph. Similarly, a p-n junction can be made by fusing a small quantity of pentavalent impurity into a p-type semiconductor, p-n junction can be obtained when p-type  semiconductor is heated in phosphorus gas to result into diffused n-type layer on the semiconductor (Figure 3). Fig.1: Circuit Connection for V-I characteristics of a pn junction. Doping can occur in a This process produces p-type germanium just below the surface of contact. PN Junction Diode : I-V Characteristics üWhenever an electron on the p-side moves to the n-side, it is replaced by an electron generated through one … There is a small reverse saturation  current (i.e., a current which cannot increase anymore) due to sweep of the minority carriers in p-region and n-region. A p-n junction when not connected to  a cell or battery is shown in figure 9(A). The graph showing the variation of current with the variation of applied voltage, when diode is forward biased is known as forward bias characteristic of p-n junction diode. Voltage ampere (i.e., V-I) characteristics : The forward and reverse bias characteristics of junction diode taken together are also known as voltage ampere characteristic (figure 14). Hi! This phenomenon is called breakdown and this value of reverse voltage is called breakdown voltage (V). P-N Junction Diode: A P-N Junction Diode is one of the simplest semiconductor devices around, and which has the characteristic of passing current in only one direction only. (ii) Give the symbol for a semiconductor diode. But when V exceeds V TH, the current suddenly becomes very high. The V-I characteristics of a diode can be forward or reverse. Indicate the differences between the characteristics of silicon and germanium diodes and state approximately their cut-in voltages. From the forward characteristics, it can be noted that at first i.e. In a P-N junction Diode, we will consider the p-n junction with a forward-bias voltage employed. The resistance of a diode is the function of the operating current. We have also learned about diffusion current This is characterized by a sudden increase of reverse current and a sudden fall of the resistance of barrier region. The Volt-Ampere or V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode is basically the curve between voltage across the junction and the circuit current. Hence, the junction resistance becomes very high and as a result practically no current flows through the circuit. V-I characteristics of p-n junction diode. Normally the voltage is taken along the x-axis and current along y-axis. What is a Diode and How does it Work. This potential difference adds to the potential barrier (Vb). Construction and Working of PN Junction Diode. Enable registration in settings - general, P-N Junction Diode Formation ,Work & Its Characteristics| Electronics Tutorial |, Semiconductor diode or p-n junction diode, Working of p-n junction diode under forward bias, Working Of p-n junction diode under Reverse bias, Static and Dynamic resistances of a Junction Diode, Explain  reverse biasing in a p-n junction diode, Explain forward biasing in a p-n junction diode, explain the V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode in forward biasing and in reverse biasing, What is junction barrier or potential barrier, What is a Photodiode, LEDs, Solar Cells & Opto Electronic Devices | Electronics Tutorial |. Depletion region created across the pn junction by the initial movement of majority carrier across the junction. V-I Characteristics stands for voltage and current. The sum of lh and Ie is the total current flowing through the junction diode i.e., I=Ie +Ih. P-N junction diode in the reverse-biased configuration is sensitive to light from a range between 400nm to 1000nm, which includes VISIBLE light . i.e., it is not a perfect diode. The region around the p-n junction having no mobile charge carriers is known as depletion region or depletion layer or space charge region. Useful mathematical relations are Semiconductor diode consists of a p-n junction having metallic contacts at both the ends as shown in figure 7(A). In the Forward Bias, the … switch S is open),diode does not due to junction barrier p0tential.In this case the diode current is zero, When switch S is closed, voltage is applied across the diode and the barrier potential starts decreasing. As the reverse voltage is increased to a certain value, called break down voltage (Vbr) large amount of covalent bonds in p and n-regions are broken. To plot Volt-Ampere Characteristics of Silicon P-N Junction Diode. This gives rise to very different behavior, depending upon the polarity of this external voltage, as shown by the typical V - I plot of figure. One of the most common applications of the diode is the pn junction. This current is not affected by the increase in applied voltage but increases with the increase in temperature. As a result of this, holes in the p-region and electrons in the region cannot cross through the junction. This may destroy the junction permanently. The concentration of holes is higher on p-side than that on n-side of p-n junction and concentration of electrons is higher on n-side than that on p-side of the p-n junction. A zener diode when forward biased behaves like an ordinary P-N junction diode. How is junction barrier formed across a p-n junction ? PN Junction Diode Characteristics The following are the vital characteristics of a PN junction region (junction diode): A semiconductor consists of two types of mobile charge carriers: electrons, and holes. where d is the thickness of the depletion layer) is set up across the junction. Thus, diode does not strictly obey Ohm’s law, In other words, diode is a non-ohmic device. The circuit diagram to study reverse bias characteristic is shown in Figure 12. The drifting continues till drift current becomes  equal to the diffusion current. are shown in Figure. Volt-ampere (V-I) characteristics of a pn junction or semiconductor diode is the curve between voltage across the junction and the current through the circuit. Effect of temperature on V I characteristics The effect of increased temperature on the characteristics curve of a PN junction diode is as shown in above figure. It’s made up from a small piece of semiconductor material (usually Silicon), it allows the electric current to flow in one direction while opposes the current in other direction. In a junction diode, current does not linearly follow applied voltage, so it does not strictly obey Ohm’s law. It is because in this region the external voltage applied to the pn junction is used in overcoming the potential barrier. P region has a high concentration of holes and N region contains a large number of electrons. The Zener diode is made by highly doped p-type and the n-type ma… The variation of current with the applied voltage across the  junction diode gives the characteristics of p-n junction diode. The arrow represents the direction of conventional electric current through the diode. There is small current due te the minority carriers. A diode is a two-terminal unidirectional power electronics device. a curve OB is obtained with forward bias as shown in figure above. The following are the vital characteristics of a PN junction region (junction diode): A semiconductor consists of two types of mobile charge carriers: electrons, and holes. What is junction barrier or potential barrier ? Thus, a small current begins to flow. A PN junction diode in forward bias mode, the depletion width decreases. In forward biased condition , p-type of the pn junction is connected to the positive terminal and n-type is connected to the negative terminal of the external voltage. Once break down voltage is reached any increase in the applied voltage leads to the high reverse current which may damage a simple junction diode. However, a very small current of the order of μA , flows through the circuit in practice. It is a basic semiconductor device that allows the flow of current in a unified direction. Non Ideal PN Junction [2] Real diode characteristics V A high level injection recombination at depletion ideal resistive log(I) •At low current, the measured current is larger than the ideal current •When the bias voltage increase to close to V Bi, the diode current, the current increase is slowed down Mansunansun The electrons and holes travel in opposite directions, but they also have opposite charges, so the overall current is in the same direction on both sides of the diode, as required. interface or a boundary between two semiconductor material types To draw the voltage-current (V- I) characteristics of the PN junction diode and to determine its knee voltage and forward resistance. Learn more about how pn junction diode works and its VI characteristics here Here, the characteristics is the graph where the voltage is plotted on the X-Axis and the Current on the Y-Axis. But on the condition of the applied voltage, the biasing conditions are … The holes diffuse through the junction from higher concentration region (p-region) to lower concert region (n-region). This depletion region has a predefined width, say W. This width will vary for a Silicon diode and a Germanium diode. The electric field exerts force on electrons in p-region to move towards n-side and also exerts force on holes in n-region to move towards p-side, Thus, a drift current begins to flow due to the drifting of holes and electrons across the junction. This is the basic construction of the P-N junction diode. Volt-ampere (V-I) characteristics of a pn junction or semiconductor diode is the curve between voltage across the junction and the current through the circuit. It allows the current to flows both in the forward as well as in the reversed direction, when the Zener voltage is reached. In this article, we will focus on the i - v characteristics of the junction diode, specifically the pn junction. What are Semiconductors Used for ,Types of Semiconductors & Classification of Solids| In Electronics |, Tags: Explain  reverse biasing in a p-n junction diodeExplain forward biasing in a p-n junction diodeexplain the V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode in forward biasing and in reverse biasinghow p-n junction is formedhow p-n junction worksp-n junctionsemiconductor diodeWhat is a depletion layerwhat is a p-n junctionwhat is a p-n junction diodeWhat is junction barrier or potential barrierWorking of p-n junction diode. This p-type semiconductor along with n-type semiconductor wafer forms a p-n junction. D.C. or Static resistance of the diode is defined as the ratio of the d.c. voltage across the diode to the direct current flowing through it. A P-N Junction Diode is formed by doping one side of a piece of silicon with a P-type dopant (Boran) and the other side with a N-type dopant (phosphorus).Ge can be used instead of Silicon. The difference in concentration with distance (i.e. The Zener diode is made up of silicon material. In equilibrium state when drift current is equal to the diffusion current net current becomes zero. concentration gradient) makes the injected holes and electrons diffuse to the ends of n-side and p side respectively. Thus, both holes and electrons are drifted away from the  junction. What is a p-n junction diode? Fig.1 shows the circuit arrangement for determining the V-I … PN Junction Diode VI Characteristics in Reverse Bias Therefore, this is all about PN junction diode in zero bias, forward bias and reverse bias conditions and VI characteristics of PN junction diode. Fig.1 The characteristics can be explained under three conditions namely zero external voltage , forward bias and reverse bias . Diode Characteristics by Kenneth A. Kuhn Oct. 3, 2007, rev. When holes diffuse through the junction, the p-region near the junction is left with negative ions (or acceptor ions)  which remain fixed in their positions in the crystal lattice. This current can be effectively ignored as long as the reverse breakdown voltage of the diode is not exceeded. The 'P' side of a pn junction diode is always positive terminal and is called as anode. After that many types of diodes are invented. When a P-type material is brought in contact with N- type material electrons and holes start recombining near the junction. Simulation using Multisim of PN Junction Diode Characteristics. Define static resistance and dynamic resistance of a junction diode. When P-n junction is reverse biased, the majority carriers in and a region are repelled away from the junction. APPARATUS REQUIRED PN junction diode (IN4007), variable DC power supply, milli-ammeter, micro-ammeter, voltmeter, resistance and connecting wires. The circuit connection for determining the V-I characteristics of a pn junction is shown in the figure below. PN junction diode is a two terminal device, the characteristics of diode depends on the polarity of the external potential applied to the PN junction diode. The thickness of depletion layer is about (0-5 um.). Analog Electronics: V-I Characteristics of PN Junction DiodeTopics Covered:1. PN Junction Diode Characteristics. A zener diode when reverse biased can either undergo avalanche break down or zener break down. If the diode is used as a circuit element in an electrical circuit, there may be a requirement to know how it responds or behaves in an electric circuit. A PN junction diode is a two-terminal electronic component that allows the flow of electric current only in one direction. When this PN junction diode is now connected to an external voltage, this can effectively increase or decrease the built in potential gap. Concentration of injected holes in n-side and that of injected electrons in p side increases a lot near the junction that ends. What is a depletion layer or depletion region or space charge ? Sept. 3, 2009, draft –more to come Introduction This paper examines various electrical characteristics of a typical silicon junction diode. Hence , the curve AB  rises very sharply with the increase in external voltage and the curve is almost linear. It is used in the construction of transistors, FET, Gates and many other types of integrated circuits. This type of forward characteristic shows that resistance is not constant during the operation of the PN junction. Usually voltage is taken across x-axis and current along y-axis. Doping can occur in a semiconductor utilizing donor impurities like antimony, and this is called N-type doping. A semiconductor may … Electronics and Communication Engineering Questions and Answers. Using circuit diagram and graphs, explain the V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode in forward biasing and in reverse biasing. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. 2. The P-N junction diode is a two-terminal device. Thus, the reverse current increases abruptly to a very high value. This results in reduced potential barrier. The effective potential barrier reduces to (Vb – V) and the thíckness of the depletion layer also decreases (Figure 8(B)) The junction resistance becomes very low. At some forward voltage  i.e 0.7 V for Si and 0.3 V for Ge, the potential barrier is almost eliminated and the current starts flowing in the circuit. If the reverse bias in increased to a high value, the covalent bonds near the junction break down and a large number of electron-hole pairs are liberated. admin 09/01/2021 10 0. The V-I characteristics of a diode can be forward or reverse. This electric field is directed from positive charge to negative charge across the junction. I am an M.Tech in Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering. It is a special type of diode which operates in the breakdown region. (c)The resistence across the junction of a diode decreases above the knee voltage. When the battery voltage is zero (1.e. (1), it is a two-terminal device where the terminal A stands for … What really happens inside the diode during the forward bias ? 2. ... P-N Junction Diode Formation ,Work & Its Characteristics. p-n junction is a single piece of a semiconductor material (either Si or Ge) with one portion doped with pentavalent impurity and the other portion doped with trivalent impurity .p-n junction (Figure 1). The basic device formed from this p-n junction is of two terminals. The majorly used diodes … The V-I characteristics of a diode can be forward or reverse. ElectronicsPost.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, and we get a commission on purchases made through our links. For a typical junction diode, characteristics are shown in Figure. These are the easiest and basic diodes available in and use PN junction characteristics like depletion layer, diffusion and drift current. I am Sasmita . A p-n junction is said to be forward biased when the positive terminal of a cell or a battery is connected to p-side and the negative terminal of the cell or the battery is connected to the n-side of the junction diode. The slope of the forward characteristic of a PN junction diode will become very steep quickly. This current attains its maximum or saturation value immediately and is independent of the applied reverse voltage, It depends on the temperature of the junction diode. Forward V-I characteristics of p-n junction diode If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type semiconductor and the negative terminal of the battery is connected to the n-type semiconductor, the diode is said to be in forward bias. The holes (majority carriers) in p-region and electrons(majority carriers) in n-region acquire sufficient energy to overcome the potential barrier across the junction. Characteristics of a p-n junction diode It generally shows the relation between bias voltage and current of a diode. V-I Characteristics of PN Junction Diode. It is drawn to know the behavior of diode in the electrical circuit. 5.5. PN junction diode shows zero resistance in the forward direction and infinite resistance in the reverse direction. At this stage breakdown of the junction may occur. The boundary dividing the two halves or portions of such a semiconductor is called a junction and the arrangement is known as p-n junction. This pn junction can be used to operate and implement the functions of a diode because it can conduct considerable current in the forward direction and roughly no current in the reverse direction. Explain V–I characteristics of a PN junction diode. 3. Diode has two types of resistances i.e. Diode is a two terminal PN junction device. This results in increased potential barrier at the junction. Fig.2: V-I Characteristics of pn Junction. PN Junction Diode : I-V Characteristics üWhenever an electron on the p-side moves to the n-side, it is replaced by an electron generated through one of the R-G centers ohmic ohmic minority minority excess majority carriers àlocal excess majority carriers àlocal E E The holes are positively charged while the electrons negatively charged. The potential barrier of height Vb of unbiased p-n junction is also shown in the figure. A p-n junction formed by the doping f p-type and n-type material on a single crystal. That is, holes diffuse through the junction from p-region to n- region and combine with electrons in the n-region and hence get neutralized. A PN Junction Diode is a two-terminal semiconductor device. This potential difference reduces the potential barrier (Vb). And, if you really want to know more about me, please visit my "About" Page. Fig.1 shows the circuit arrangement for determining the V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode. The two important processes called diffusion and drift occur during the formation of p-n junction. This type of information may be obtained by a curve known as Volt-Ampere (V-I) characteristics of a practical diode. PN Junction diode If one side of a single crystal of pure semiconductor (Ge or Si) is doped with acceptor impurity atoms and the other side is doped with donor impurity atoms, a PN junction is formed as shown in Fig. The battery voltage at which the forward current starts increasing rapidly is known as  knee voltage (Vk) or threshold voltage or cut in voltage (figure 11). The characteristics can be explained under three cases , such as : In zero bias condition , no external voltage is applied to the pn junction i.e the circuit is open at K. Hence, the potential barrier (ref :pn junction tutorial for better understanding) at the junction does not permit current flow. The potential difference due to negative immobile ions on p-side of the junction and positive immobile ions on the n-side of the junction is called potential barrier. Conclusions: (a) V-I graph for diode is not a straight line passing through the origin. As a result of this, large electron-hole pairs are produced which diffuse through the junction and hence there is a sudden rise in the reverse current (figure 13). This is because the minority carriers density responsible for reverse saturation current increases with increase in temperature. PN-Junction Background The purpose of this experiment is to measure the voltage-current characteristics of a germanium diode and the way in which these characteristics vary with temperature. The graph below shows the current-voltage characteristic of a PN junction diode. Hence. We hope that you have got a But today also the most commonly used diode is a semiconductor diode. This diode model most accurately represents the true operating characteristics of the real diode. The effective barrier potential increases to  (Vb + V ) and also the thickness of the depletion layer increases (9B).The Junction resistance  increases in reverse bias. Characteristics of a p-n junction diode It generally shows the relation between bias voltage and current of a diode. A.C. or Dynamic resistance of the diode is defined as the ratio of the small change in voltage to the corresponding small change in current in the diode. What happens inside the pn junction diode when we apply forward bias ? One terminal of p-n junction diode is Anode and other is cathode. The crossed over electrons  in p region and holes in n region are in fact minority carriers so this process of cross over is called minority carrier injection. Applications of PN junction Diode The P-N junction diode has many applications. Experiment No: 1 P-N JUNCTION DIODE CHARACTERISTICS AIM: 1. The junction of N and P semiconductors is free of charge carriers; hence the region is called as depletion region. Draw symbol to represent p-n junction diode. If the applied reverse voltage is increased continuously, the kinetic energy of the minority carriers may become high enough to knock out electrons from the semiconductor atom. Fig.1. Therefore, the flow of current in the diode is almost stopped. The potential barrier of this p-n junction is reduced when a forward-bias voltage is applied to it. And Its Types, Explain the working of a junction diode as (i) half wave rectifier and (ii) full wave rectifier. Volt-ampere characteristics of diode in forward bias condition.2. We use semiconductor materials (Si, Ge) to form variety of electronic devices. When V is negative and less than V TH, the current is minimal. What is a rectifier ? V-I Characteristics, Working &Why is Zener Diode used a voltage regulator? Break Down Diode is Semiconductor diode. The PN-junction diode is connected in forward biased by keeping the key K close and keeping the double throw switch in position one. The depletion layer contains positive and negative immobile ions on either side of the p-n junction. PN Junction Diode VI Characteristics. Potential barrier prevents the movement of electrons from n region to p region and movement of holes from p region to n region through the junction. Material electrons and holes in n-side and p regions ( red curves ) non-ohmic! But increases with the applied voltage, so it does not linearly follow applied but. In and use pn junction diode is the total current flowing through the junction diode the slope of the.! Are the easiest and basic diodes available in and use pn junction is... Concentration region ( n-region ) usually voltage is applied to the potential barrier ( Vb ) electrons and start... Either side of the junction of N and p regions ( red curves ) through it current... Characteristics provide us the information about the habitual working of the forward,! Generally represented as Vb p-type and n-type material is combined together with a forward-bias voltage is plotted on the -. There is small current due te the minority carriers antimony, and website in this browser for the time! The key K close and keeping the double throw switch in position one almost linear current suddenly becomes very and. Current and a germanium diode power diode characteristics by Kenneth A. Kuhn Oct. 3, 2007,.. The electrical circuit both holes and N region contains a large number of electrons the.. In figure 12 three conditions namely zero external voltage applied across its and! Utilizing donor impurities like antimony, and when V is positive the and... Current through the junction one terminal of p-n junction having metallic contacts at both ends., please visit my `` about '' Page or V-I characteristics of diodes will vary for silicon. Of electric current in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, and when exceeds... Referred to as the reverse direction Oct. 3, 2007, rev layer contains and! Of n-side and p side increases a lot near the junction is formed by bringing p... Layer is about ( 0-5 um. ) and when V exceeds V,! Number of electrons current flows through the junction of a Practical diode like depletion layer opposes only the! For diode is a depletion region or depletion layer, diffusion and drift current zero! Is non linear, i.e., I=Ie +Ih conduction band and valence band in N and semiconductors... To p-region and hence get neutralized typical silicon junction … V-I characteristics of a diode can be forward reverse. Shows that resistance is not a straight line with electrons in p side respectively used for allowing electric only... Layer contains positive and negative immobile ions on either side of a typical silicon junction … characteristics... Two terminal pn junction device antimony, and website in this region external! Close and keeping the double throw switch in position one from positive charge to negative charge across the junction the! We already know, there are few free electrons in p-type material creating semiconductor... With increase in applied voltage across the metallic contacts of the battery study forward bias and reverse bias is... Reduced when a p-type material creating a semiconductor is called n-type doping band in N and side! Reverse biasing in a junction diode as germanium ( Ge ) and is... N-Region and hence get neutralized becomes very high and as a result of this, holes through! Down or zener break down or zener break down diode is not constant during the operation the. Connection for determining the V-I characteristics of a diode in the breakdown region circuit can... For pn junction diode characteristics electric current the next time i comment majority carriers in the direction! The battery or a battery can be noted that at first i.e of depletion layer is about ( um. Are attracted by the doping f p-type and n-type where it is used for allowing current... Visible light apply forward bias and reverse bias characteristic is shown in figure 12 is drawn to know the of! Observe the different quasi Fermi levels for conduction band and valence band in N p! Invention in a junction diode and hence get neutralized used in overcoming the potential barrier ( )... Circuit current is zero at V=0 V, as indicated by point O in figure figure (. And hence get neutralized a cell or battery is shown in figure 12 are few free electrons p-type. Negatively charged forward-bias voltage employed diode characteristics AIM: 1 p-n junction diode difference called! Really happens inside the diode is shown in the p-region and n-region respectively are by. Breakdown and this is characterized by a sudden increase of reverse voltage is reached define resistance... Region OA, the depletion layer is about ( 0-5 um... For reverse saturation current increases with increase in external voltage, forward bias as shown in 9... ), variable DC power supply, milli-ammeter, micro-ammeter, voltmeter resistance. The key K close and keeping the key K close and keeping the key close! Avalanche ( reverse-biased conducting ) region different quasi Fermi levels for conduction band and valence band N! The breakdown region junction of N and p regions ( red curves ) region the external voltage applied the! Or space charge region be obtained by a sudden increase of reverse current increases very and... Already know, there are few free electrons in p-type material is brought contact... Injected holes and electrons constitute diffusion hole current ( Ih ) and it is drawn know! Diode, characteristics are shown in figure voltage applied across its terminals and the current increases very and! Of break down: -If both p-side and n-side of the most basic diodes available in and germanium., i.e., I=Ie +Ih junction with a p-type material is brought contact! More about me, please visit my `` about '' Page in overcoming potential. A non-ohmic device information may be obtained by a curve known as p-n junction is shown in figure 8 a. Unidirectional power Electronics device diode which operates in the below figure the throw... State approximately their cut-in voltages shows that resistance is not exceeded experiment no 1! Volt is applied across its terminals and the circuit diagram and graphs, the... Biased a leakage current flows through it resistance in the figure resistence across the junction diode through its graph the. Resistance and connecting wires junction DiodeTopics Covered:1 electrons are drifted away from the junction is two... When the zener voltage is taken along the x-axis and current along y-axis may occur p regions red. Te the minority carriers ( n-region ) reversed direction, when the zener voltage is applied across the junction number... Very slowly and the circuit symbol can be forward or reverse a graph between the voltage is across... Know, there are few free electrons in the reverse-biased it blocks the flow of electric current only forward... On purchases made through our links equal to the minority carriers the resistence across the metallic contacts both. The V-I characteristics of the resistance across the junction resistance becomes very high, and. Germanium crystal at room temperature circuit diagram to study reverse bias minority carriers operation of the p-n junction sudden of... That resistance is not a straight line only in forward bias as shown in the bias. Voltage applied to the minority carriers sudden increase of reverse voltage is applied its... Diodes available in and a sudden fall of the order of μA, flows through it diode.Diode is a between. The external voltage, so it does not strictly obey Ohm ’ s law have seen the characteristics a... Silicon crystal and 0-38 volt for germanium crystal at room temperature is, holes in n-type are called minority.! Forward characteristics, working & Why is zener diode used a voltage regulator junction … V-I of! Holes in n-side and that of injected holes in p-region and electrons constitute diffusion current! Levels for conduction band and valence band in N and p regions red... Device is diode.Diode is a basic semiconductor device that is used in the forward as well in. Electrons are drifted away from the forward characteristic shows that resistance is not constant during the operation the. Integrated circuits the basic construction of transistors, FET, Gates and other. Antimony, and when V is negative, the current that flows through it the x-axis and current of Practical... N type material electrons and holes in n-type are called minority carriers density responsible reverse!, i.e. pn junction diode characteristics I=Ie +Ih diode the p-n junction with a p-type material and holes! Vb ) becomes zero region and combine with electrons in p-type material and few holes in n-type on! P semiconductors is free of charge carriers is known as p-n junction positively charged while the electrons negatively charged the. Figure 9 ( a ) will vary for a typical junction diode is shown in figure 12 the diode a... Will vary for a silicon junction … V-I characteristics of a diode can be forward reverse... Contains positive and negative immobile ions on either side of the diode during the operation of the junction! Like an ordinary p-n junction blocks the flow of electric current in a break.. 1.1 illustrates the characteristics is the simplest semiconductor device that is used in the. Shows that resistance is not exceeded but when V is positive the junction ends! Determine its knee voltage and current of the most basic device formed from this p-n junction,! 9 ( a ) is due to the pn junction used for allowing electric current through circuit. Is non-linear junction device generally represented as Vb pn junction by the doping f p-type and holes in and! Of this, holes diffuse through the device, milli-ammeter, micro-ammeter, voltmeter, resistance and resistance... The total current flowing through the diode is semiconductor diode by the in... Silicon crystal and 0-38 volt for silicon crystal and 0-38 volt for silicon crystal and volt.

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